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Course Descriptions

SPC anatomical models

Doctor of Chiropractic Course Descriptions

AN5101  Spine & Extremities Anatomy    Credits 5.0 
In this course, students will learn in lecture and group formats, the normal structure and function of the spine and extremities. In the first portion of this course, students will be required to demonstrate core knowledge of the gross anatomy of spinal structures, including the pediatric spine, and relevant structures of the back. Students must also demonstrate an anatomical and functional understanding of the spinal cord, its meninges, and the spinal nerves. In the second portion of the course, students will explore the gross anatomical structures of the extremities and their functions. The integrated gross anatomy laboratory exercises will address related basic science issues.  
Co-requisite: AN5102  

AN5102   Spine & Extremities Anatomy Lab   Credits 3.5 
In this course, students will learn in laboratory format, the normal structure and function of the spine and extremities. In the first portion of this course, students will be required to demonstrate core knowledge of the gross anatomy of spinal structures, including the pediatric spine, and relevant structures of the back. Students must also demonstrate an anatomical and functional understanding of the spinal cord, its meninges and the spinal nerves. In the second portion of the course, students will explore the gross anatomical structures of the extremities and their functions. The basic science component will integrate with the laboratory issues.  
Co-requisite: AN5101  

AN5107   Histology & Embryology I   Credits 2.5 
In this course, students will be introduced to histology and human developmental anatomy. In the histology portion of the course, students will study the histology of the main tissues of the body, i.e., epithelium, connective, muscle, and nervous. In addition, students will study the histology of the blood, the vascular system, bone and cartilage, the integument, and lymphoid tissue. In the developmental anatomy portion of the course, students will learn about the events of the first three weeks of development and the development of the nervous system. In coordination with the co-requisite gross anatomy course, students will also study axial and limb development.  
Co-requisite: AN5101, AN5102, PH5103 

 AN5201    Head & Neck Anatomy   Credits 3.0 
In this course, students will study, in lecture and group formats, the normal structure and function of the regions of the human head and neck. This includes gross anatomical structures as well as neuroanatomical structures. In addition, the embryology and histology of specific structures of the head and neck will be presented. This course is fully integrated with laboratory dissections presented in AN5202. Gross anatomy and neuroanatomy exercises will address related basic science issues.  
Prerequisites: AN5101, AN5102  
Co-requisites: AN5202, AN5203, PH5208  

 AN5202     Head & Neck Anatomy Lab  Credits 2.0 
In this course, students will study in laboratory format, the normal structure and function of the regions of the human head and neck. This includes gross anatomical structures as well as neuroanatomical structures. This course is fully integrated with lecture topics presented in AN5201. Gross anatomy and neuroanatomy laboratory exercises will address related basic science issues.  
Co-requisites: AN5201, AN5203, PH5208 

AN5203  Neuroanatomy     Credits 5.5 
The purpose of this course is to study the structures of the brain, spinal cord, and autonomic nervous system (ANS), and their functions. The structures of the brain, spinal cord, and ANS, and their functions will be introduced to students through the following methods: lectures, group activities, self-directed learning, readings, and laboratory participation. The functions of these structures will be emphasized and their relevancy to clinical practice will be demonstrated through the use of patient paper cases and problems.  
Prerequisite: AN5107 
Co-requisites: AN5201, AN5202, PH5208 

 AN5304   Thorax, Abdomen & Pelvic Anatomy   Credits 2.0 
Students will study, in lecture and group formats, the normal structure and function of the organ systems associated with the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Specifically, this course will cover the gross anatomy of the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and urinary systems. Laboratory exercises will help guide students toward understanding the anatomical concepts associated with these systems. In addition, students will interrelate their anatomical knowledge with the Histology and Embryology II course.  
Prerequisites: AN5201, AN5202, AN5203 
Co-requisites: AN5305, AN5307 

AN5305  Thorax, Abdomen & Pelvic Anatomy Lab  Credits 2.0 
Students will study, in laboratory format, the normal structure and function of the organ systems associated with the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. Specifically, this course will cover the gross anatomy of the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and urinary systems. Laboratory exercises will help guide students toward understanding the anatomical concepts associated with these systems. In addition, students will interrelate their anatomical knowledge with the Histology and Embryology II course. 
Co-requisites: AN5304, AN5307  

AN5307  Histology & Embryology II  Credits 2.5 
In coordination with the co-requisite gross anatomy course, students will learn the developmental anatomy and histology of the main systems of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis in this course. 
Prerequisite: AN5107 
Co-requisites: AN5304, AN5305 

BC5104  Human Biochemistry  Credits 5.0
The structure and functions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and their reactions in metabolic pathways are investigated. 
Prerequisite / Co-requisite: None 

BC5308    Nutritional Biochemistry I  Credits 2.0
Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins and vitamin-like nutrients (choline, lipoic acid, L-carnitine, ubiquinone, and flavonoids) will be studied with an emphasis on their absorption, transport, excretion and biochemical involvement within human metabolic pathways involving normal physiology and pathophysiology. 
Prerequisites: BC5104 

BC5409  Nutritional Biochemistry II   Credits 1.0
Minerals, water and fiber will be studied with an emphasis on their absorption, transport, excretion and biochemical involvement within human metabolic pathways involving normal physiology and pathophysiology. Biochemical interactions regarding nutrigenomics will also be discussed.
Prerequisites: BC5308 

BU5116  Professionalism, Ethics & Law     Credits 1.0
Ethics is a cornerstone to success in healthcare education and to be successful as a healthcare practitioner. Understanding ethical and professional practices as well as the laws that govern the healthcare profession is paramount to a student’s success while in an academic and clinical program, as well as the student’s success as a practitioner. This course discusses the legal, policy and ethical issues encountered by students in the educational setting and after graduation as a practitioner in the continuously evolving health care system. Topics will include academic misconduct in the classroom, ethical conduct and laws governing a student intern in an academic clinical setting and ethical conduct and laws governing a Doctor of Chiropractic in the practice of chiropractic.
Prerequisite: None 

BU6221    Patient Communication and Marketing  Credits 2.0
Effective communication through written, verbal and electronic means is essential for the success of a health care practice. Ethical marketing is the hallmark for the success of any business, especially a healthcare practice.
Prerequisite: Professionalism, Ethics and Law 

BU6309   Starting a Practice  Credits 2.0
Students after graduation aspire to open their own health care practice but many times do not know how to accomplish this. This course takes what was learned in the previous business classes and incorporates new material to give the student the knowledge and strategic plan to start their own practice within various practice settings.
Prerequisite: Professionalism, Ethics and Law; Billing, Coding and Documentation; Patient Communication and Marketing 

BU6314  Billing, Coding, Documentation and Compliance   Credits 2.0
This course introduces students to principles of chiropractic billing, coding and documentation staying within government and third-party guidelines needed to be successful in the clinic phase of the healthcare program as well as after graduation in practice. Students will learn proper methods of billing for services, which include the proper use of ICD-10 and CPT coding to be compliant with regulator guidelines. Students will learn what needs to be in patient care documentation that will serve to support medical necessity as well as substantiate services performed and billed. This course will also expose the students to provider credentialing and credentialing for third-party payers.
Prerequisite: Professionalism, Ethics and Law, Patient Communication and Marketing 

BU6411  Managing a Practice  Credits 2.0
This course introduces students to the principles and practices of managing a successful health care practice to include; the use of business management software, financial and performance analysis of the practice, goal setting for personal and professional development, understanding local, state and federal tax codes, debt management and retirement planning.
Prerequisites: Professionalism, Ethics and Law; Billing, Coding and Documentation; Patient Communication and Marketing; Starting a Practice 

DH5411    Public Health  Credits 2.0 
The focus of this course is to introduce the student to the concepts of public health, health promotion, and disease prevention.  Individual, environmental, and sociodemographic factors affecting the population’s health will be discussed, along with organization of the public health system, health surveys, health policies, and health screening.
Pre-requisites/Co-requisites: None 

EC6303  Ambulatory Trauma Care (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 1.5
This course places emphasis on the practical application of emergency care procedures that can be employed in a primary care clinic setting if required. This course provides instruction in open and closed wound management techniques that encompass sterile procedures, the application methods of roller bandages, and suturing techniques. To receive a passing grade in this course, students must show current CPR certification from the American Heart Association, BLS for Health Care Providers.  
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

EC6311  Emergency Management: Chiropractic Practice (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 1.5
This course places emphasis on the practical application of emergency care procedures that can be employed in a primary care clinic setting if required. This course provides instruction in open and closed wound management techniques that encompass sterile procedures, the application methods of roller bandages, and suturing techniques. To receive a passing grade in this course, students must show current CPR certification from the American Heart Association, BLS for Health Care Providers.  
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

EC6313   Advanced Diagnosis & Clinical Reasoning  (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 3.0
The primary objective of this course is to give students an opportunity to master the diagnostic skills, and the associated psychomotor skills used in a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. The laboratory portion of this course will use simulated patients to help students synthesize and refine their history taking, examination, and diagnostic skills. Emphasis will be placed on the doctor-patient relationship, including appropriate ethical boundaries and effective communication skills. Students will also practice record keeping skills, including the preparation of SOAP notes. This course will require students to perform male and female sensitive exams (breast and pelvic) on standardized patients.
Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6116 

EL6712  Exercise Testing and Prescription (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 2.0
This course is a “concentration elective”. In this course the study of standard testing procedures will be utilized to help ensure the health and safety of the athlete to include pre-participation physicals, cardiorespiratory fitness assessment, muscle strength assessment, body composition and flexibility and functional movements. This course will also discuss exercise prescriptions for all ages, special populations, and specific health conditions. 

EL6713   Nutrition for Human Performance (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 2.0 
This course is a “concentration elective”. This course is an in-depth study of the function of nutrients on human performance through energy production, muscle, metabolism, and immune function. This course will include nutritional assessment and dietary habits for optimal performance; body weight and composition; weight management; and eating disorders in athletes. The risks, benefits, and legality of performance enhancing supplements and drugs will be evaluated. 

EL6714   Sports Injuries & Medical Conditions (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 2.0
This course is a “concentration elective”. This course is a continuation of Sports Medicine I, that further studies the injuries and medical conditions that occur in specific sports. Assessment and management of these conditions may include rehabilitation, manual therapy, and taping. This course will also cover the evaluation and management of concussions. 

EL6723   Laboratory Interpretation for Functional Medicine (Effective Spring 2022)    Credits 2.0 
This course is a “concentration elective”. This course will provide an in-depth study of laboratory tests used in the practice of functional medicine and how to interpret the findings to prevent body systems dysfunction and to maintain and restore health. Functional tests will include blood serum and smears, urine, cultures, swabs, saliva, and genetics. 

EL6724   Functional Medicine and Chronic Illness (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 2.0
This course is a “concentration elective”. This course provides students with an in-depth study on imbalances in the human body that play a role in chronic conditions. This course will focus on detoxification and biotransformation, protective mechanisms to xenobiotic exposure, immune imbalances, and inflammatory stress. The importance of functional assessment, testing, and management will be stressed.   

EL6725/EL6733  Functional Neuroendocrinology and Reproductive Health    Credits 2.0
(Effective Spring 2022)
This course is a “concentration elective”. This course will provide an in-depth study of the relationship between the brain and endocrine system to regulate hormonal activity in the human body. This course will examine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis), hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) and Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and effects on the body’s systems including reproductive health. Functional testing will be studied to determine if and where a dysfunction has occurred within these axis and end hormone secretion. Nutritional consideration will be presented to restore homeostasis. 

EL6734  Women’s Health and Conservative Management I  Credits 2.0                                                                                            (Effective Spring 2022)
This course is a “concentration elective”. This course provides an in-depth study essential for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician regarding the evaluation, differential diagnosis, and management of common conditions involving the female patient. This course will provide students with an understanding of common gynecological testing used along with the history and physical exam data to formulate a diagnosis of common gynecological and pregnancy conditions. The course will expose students to treatment options to formulate a management plan inclusive of natural therapy in the form of diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, spinal manipulation, and other rehabilitative procedures. 

EL6735   Women’s Health and Conservative Management II   Credits 2.0
(Effective Spring 2022)
This course is a “concentration elective”. This is the second course in the Women’s Health and Conservative Management sequence that further provides an in-depth study focusing on the pregnant female essential for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician regarding the evaluation, differential diagnosis, and conservative management of the female from prenatal through the post-partum phases. This course will expose students to treatment options to formulate a management plan inclusive of natural therapy in the form of diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, spinal manipulation, and other rehabilitative procedures.

EM5207  Evaluation & Management of the Chest & Thoracic Spine (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 3.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the chest and thoracic spine. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the chest and thoracic spine, as well as examination skills for these areas. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, taking vitals, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, auscultation, percussion, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the chest and thoracic spine. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, and skills laboratories that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.   

This is the student’s first Evaluation and Management course. It will lay the foundation for other Evaluation and Management courses by teaching concepts related to (i) the patient interview, examination, and management process; (ii) joint and soft tissue evaluation; and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship.  
Prerequisites:  AN5101, AN5102, FH5106
Co-requisite: MM5220  
 

EM5213    Examination & Management of the Thoracic Spine & Chest (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 3.0 
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the chest and thoracic spine. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the chest and thoracic spine, as well as examination skills for these areas. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, taking vitals, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, auscultation, percussion, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the chest and thoracic spine. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, and skills laboratories that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.  

 This is the student’s first Evaluation and Management course. It will lay the foundation for other Evaluation and Management courses by teaching concepts related to (i) the patient interview, examination and management process; (ii) joint and soft tissue evaluation; and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship.  
Prerequisites:  AN5101, AN5102, FH5106
Co-requisite: MM5222  

 EM5309    Evaluation & Management of the Abdomen, Pelvis, and Lumbar Spine (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 3.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine, as well as examination skills for these areas. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, auscultation, percussion, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisite: EM5207 

EM5309   Examination & Management of the Abdomen, Pelvis, and Lumbar Spine  Credits 3.0
(Effective Spring 2022)
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine, as well as examination skills for these areas. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, auscultation, percussion, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the abdomen, pelvis, and lumbar spine such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisite: EM5213  

EM5408  Evaluation & Management of the Head, Neck & Cervical Spine (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 3.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage select conditions of the head, neck, and cervical spine. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the concepts of (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling as it relates to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated conditions affecting the head, neck, and cervical spine. Students well reinforce their skills of the standard historical methods learned in EM5207 as well as learn the examination methods required to gather pertinent patient information regarding the head, neck, and cervical spine in a professional and reliable manner. The course is structured to include instruction via two distinct methods: classroom lectures as well as clinical skills practicums. The clinical skills practicum potion of the course is distinctively further divided into an evaluation as well as management portion. Overall, the teaching methods of the course will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, simulated patient encounters, small group work, and problem-based large group discussion that focus on clinical/motor skills development. 
Prerequisites:  AN5201, AN5202, EM5309
Co-requisite: MM5420 

 EM5417   Examination & Management of the Head, Neck & Cervical Spine    Credits 3.0
 (Effective Spring 2022)
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage select conditions of the head, neck, and cervical spine. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the concepts of (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling as it relates to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated conditions affecting the head, neck, and cervical spine. Students well reinforce their skills of the standard historical methods learned in EM5213 as well as learn the examination methods required to gather pertinent patient information regarding the head, neck and cervical spine in a professional and reliable manner. The course is structured to include instruction via two distinct methods: classroom lectures as well as clinical skills practicums. The clinical skills practicum potion of the course is distinctively further divided into an evaluation as well as management portion. Overall, the teaching methods of the course will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, simulated patient encounters, small group work, and problem-based large group discussion that focus on clinical/motor skills development. 
Prerequisites:  AN5201, AN5202, EM5309
Co-requisite: MM5422 

EM6103  Evaluation & Management of the GI/GU & Reproductive Systems (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 4.0
This course focuses on the clinical manifestations of disorders of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and female reproductive systems. The emphasis is on the etiology, presentation, diagnostic identification, management, and prevention of system conditions. Learning is driven by class lectures, case-based learning, and self-directed small group assignments. Diagnostic evaluation includes appropriate laboratory testing, special testing, and imaging. Management of system disorders includes the study of clinical aspects of nutritional therapy to include diet modification, botanical medicine, manipulation, and physiological therapeutics. 
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I  

EM6214  Differential Diagnosis & Management I: Abdominal & Pelvic Disorders (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 4.0
This course provides students the knowledge and clinical thought process of evaluation, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems as needed to be a primary healthcare provider. This course will emphasize the etiology, presentation, diagnostic identification, management, and prevention of conditions involving gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. Diagnostic evaluation of these conditions will include specific laboratory testing, special testing, and imaging. Management of these disorders will include nutritional therapy in the form of diet modification, and botanical medicine. Manual therapy will also be discussed in the form of manipulation and physiological therapeutics. Students will learn through class lectures, case-based, and self-directed small group assignments.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I  

EM6104   Evaluation & Management of the Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 3.0
This course focuses on the differential diagnosis and management of common disorders of the cardiopulmonary system. Students are expected to develop skills in history collection, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, critical thinking, and differential evaluation. In addition to history taking and the physical exam, diagnosis of these conditions will include evaluation of electrocardiograms and various laboratory tests. Students are introduced to the various modalities that are available for the treatment of these disorders. Case presentations include, but are not limited to, disorders such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, pneumoconiosis, and pneumonia. Management of these conditions will encompass the study of the clinical aspects of nutritional science including diet therapy and botanical medicine, manipulation, physiological therapeutics, and rehabilitation. 
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I  

EM6215   Differential Diagnosis & Management II: Cardio-Pulmonary Disorders  (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 3.0
This course provides students the knowledge, skills, and clinical thought process to provide a differential diagnosis and management plan of common disorders of the cardiopulmonary system. Students will utilize knowledge and skills taught in EM5207 Evaluation and Management of Chest and Thoracic spine such as: history collection, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, critical thinking, and differential diagnosis. Diagnosis of these conditions will also include interpretation of electrocardiograms and various laboratory tests. Students are introduced to modalities that are available for the treatment of these disorders. Case presentations include, but are not limited to, disorders such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, pneumoconiosis, and pneumonia. Management of these conditions will encompass the study of the clinical  aspects of nutritional science including diet therapy and botanical medicine, manipulation, physiological therapeutics, and rehabilitation.  
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

EM6105    Evaluation & Management of the EENT (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 3.0
This course focuses on the clinical manifestations of disorders of the eyes, ears, nose, and throat. The emphasis is upon the etiology, presentation, diagnostic identification, management, and prevention of these disorders. Diagnostic procedures include laboratory testing, special testing, and appropriate imaging. Management of these conditions will encompass the study of the clinical aspects of nutritional science including diet therapy and botanical medicine, manipulation, physiological therapeutics, and rehabilitation.  There is a portion of the course that will address complaints of dizziness and vertigo. The emphasis is upon the etiology, presentation, diagnostic identification, pathophysiology, and on the conservative management of these complaints. Learning will be driven by the class lectures, case-based presentations, and self-directed small group assignments.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I   

EM6222  Differential Diagnosis and Management IV: EENT  (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 3.0
This course focuses on the clinical manifestations of disorders of the eyes, ears, nose, and throat. The emphasis is upon the etiology, presentation, diagnostic identification, management, and prevention of these disorders. Diagnostic procedures include laboratory testing, special testing, and appropriate imaging. Management of these conditions will encompass the study of the clinical aspects of nutritional science including diet therapy and botanical medicine, manipulation, physiological therapeutics, and rehabilitation.  There is a portion of the course that will address complaints of dizziness and vertigo. The emphasis is upon the etiology, presentation, diagnostic identification, pathophysiology, and on the conservative management of these complaints. Learning will be driven by the class lectures, case-based presentations, and self-directed small group assignments. 
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I   

EM6106    Evaluation & Management of the Neurological System (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 3.0
This course presents a study of the procedures of the neurological history and examination, clinical correlation of neurological findings with other clinical data, an introduction to functional neurology, and the application of manipulation, massage, exercise, and other sensory input in the management of patients with neurological disorders. Methods of instruction include lecture, patient video presentations and clinical cases presented in a large group. Small group and self-directed learning activities outside of class include specific readings about neurological diseases/disorders and written assignments based on the readings. 
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

EM6218    Differential Diagnosis and Management III: Neurology  (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 3.0
This course presents a study of the procedures of the neurological history and examination, clinical correlation of neurological findings with other clinical data, an introduction to functional neurology, and the application of manipulation, massage, exercise, and other sensory input in the management of patients with neurological disorders. Methods of instruction include lecture, patient video presentations and clinical cases presented in a large group. Small group and self-directed learning activities outside of class include specific readings about neurological diseases/disorders and written assignments based on the readings. 
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

EM6112  Evaluation & Management of the Musculoskeletal System I  (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 2.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The clinical presentation of common musculoskeletal conditions will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the musculoskeletal system. Teaching methods will include lectures, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisites: AN5201, AN5202, EM5309 

EM6113  Chiropractic Practice: Musculoskeletal I  Credits 2.0  (Effective Spring 2022)
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The clinical presentation of common musculoskeletal conditions will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the musculoskeletal system. Teaching methods will include lectures, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisites: AN5201, AN5202, EM5309 

EM6120  Evaluation & Management of the Extremities (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 4.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the upper and lower extremities. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the extremities, as well as examination skills for this area. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the extremities, such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the extremities. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I
Prerequisite:  EM6112 

EM6121   Examination & Management of the Upper & Lower Extremities  (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 4.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the upper and lower extremities. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the extremities, as well as examination skills for this area. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the extremities, such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the extremities. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I
Prerequisite:  EM6113 

EM6202     Physical Diagnosis  (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 4.5 

The primary objective of this course is for students to reinforce history taking and physical diagnostic skills taught in prior Evaluation and Management courses. These physical skills are reinforced in this course with an emphasis placed on interpretation of findings on a wide range of conditions. The context of this course will be a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. The course’s laboratory activities will require students to perform a comprehensive (head-to-toe) physical examination, individual regional exams, and a region-based musculoskeletal  exam using skills introduced prior. Lectures will emphasize correlation of physical finding and interpretation.
Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6103, EM6104, EM6105; EM6106; EM6120 

EM6116  Clinical Evaluation & Diagnosis  (Effective Spring 2021)   Credits 4.5
This course will provide students additional training to reinforce history taking and physical, orthopedic and neurological examination skills taught in prior Evaluation and management courses. Emphasis will be placed on interpretation of findings on a wide range of conditions. The context of this course will be a broad-based conservative care (primary health care). The course’s laboratory activities will require students to perform a comprehensive (head to toe) physical examination, individual regional exams, and a region-based musculoskeletal exam using skills introduced prior. Lectures will emphasize correlation of physical finding and interpretation. 
Prerequisites: Completion of Phase 1

EM6203     Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 3.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn laboratory diagnostic skills. This course will include comprehensive instruction about the laboratory testing process, including indications, the collection and preparation of samples, the interpretation and evaluation of laboratory test results, and associated record keeping techniques. The context of this course will be a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. The course will include commonly run profiles of hematology, chemistries, urinalysis, fecal and sputum studies.
Prerequisites: EM6103, M6104, EM6105, EM6106 

EM6117    Laboratory Diagnosis (Effective Spring 2022)    Credits 3.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn laboratory diagnostic skills. This course will include comprehensive instruction about the laboratory testing process, including indications, the collection and preparation of samples, the interpretation and evaluation of laboratory test results, and associated record keeping techniques. The context of this course will be a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. The course will include commonly run profiles of hematology, chemistries, urinalysis, fecal and sputum studies.
Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I 

 EM6118  Phlebotomy and Point of Care Testing (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 0.5
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the skill of phlebotomy, and to introduce students to the collection and handling of laboratory specimens including throat culture, quick strep test, urinalysis, and capillary glucose testing.
Prerequisites: Completion of Phase 1 

EM6119   Psychopathology & Health Psychology (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 3.0
This course includes:  

  1. review and discussion of the major topics in health psychology including examination of the relationships of psychopathology, lifestyle and personal relationships to physical health. Topics include risk factors and treatments for physical disorders such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic pain and diabetes as well as the exploration of the co-morbidity of physical and psychological disorders;   
  2. an examination of some of the basic categories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety,  substance related disorders, sleep disorders, eating disorders, cognitive disorders, and psychosis) with emphasis on screening, diagnosis and management in a primary care setting. Students are asked to review current theories and their implication for practice;   
  3. The course will include an overview of psychopathology and health psychology with self-directed learning to include cases, discussion, application of principles, and article reviews.  

       EM6207    Pediatrics, Geriatrics & Female Health Issues (Through  Fall 2021)  Credits 3.0
      This course focuses on the differential diagnosis and management of common conditions that present in the pediatric and elderly populations. Patient presentation, identification, prevention, and management are addressed in lectures and large group experiences. Learning is driven by clinical cases and enhanced by the lectures. Management of these conditions includes the study of the clinical aspects of nutritional science (including diet therapy and botanical medicine), manipulation, csc, and rehabilitation.  
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      EM6210   The Clinical Encounter (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 1.5
      This course focuses on practical aspects of the clinical encounter including the manners in which effective doctor-patient communication facilitate health care outcomes, and how effective medical records reflect the clinical thought process, and the role of integrative medicine in therapeutic clinical decision-making, with focus on how the chiropractic physician contributes into the integrative process. Discussion and application within this course will follow certain proposed evidence-informed definitions and philosophies of chiropractic medicine. Students will be given the opportunity to learn these concepts through mock patient encounters and clinical observation within the chiropractic medicine program.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      EM6211       Chiropractic Clinical Encounters (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 1.5
      This course focuses on the practical issues of patient management in practice. Students are asked to explore the literature to broaden their understanding of the issues in the field, and then reflect on and actively develop strategies for their relationships with patients and other health care providers. Lecture and discussion topics include: structures in doctor-patient interaction; models of the doctor-patient interaction; doctor-patient boundaries; the impact of the doctor-patient relationship on health care outcomes; the impact of the doctor-patient relationship on patient satisfaction; culturally-responsive health care; the sociological context of patient suffering; co-creation of the patient’s story in a therapeutic relationship; death, dying and palliative health care; management of the abused patient; and the doctor’s responsibilities to the community and society. Class time is used to explore doctor-patient relationship issues through lectures, cases, guest presentations, structured interpersonal exercises, article reviews, and discussion.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      EM6212   Evaluation & Management of the Musculoskeletal System II (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 2.0
      The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage disorders of the musculoskeletal system, focusing on the extremities. The clinical presentation of common musculoskeletal conditions will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the musculoskeletal system. Teaching methods will include lectures, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
      Prerequisites: EM6120, EM6112  

      EM6214    Chiropractic Practice: Evaluation & Management of the Musculoskeletal II  (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 2.0
      The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage disorders of the musculoskeletal system, focusing on the extremities. The clinical presentation of common musculoskeletal conditions will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the musculoskeletal system. Teaching methods will include lectures, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
      Prerequisites: EM6121, EM6113  

      EM6213  Phlebotomy and Special Collections Lab (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 0.5
      The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the skill of phlebotomy, and to introduce students to the collection and handling of laboratory specimens including throat culture, quick strep test, urinalysis, and capillary glucose testing.
      Prerequisites: EM6212

      EM6304   Advanced Diagnosis & Problem Solving (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 2.0
      The primary objective of this course is to give students an opportunity to master the diagnostic skills, and the associated psychomotor skills used in a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. The laboratory portion of this course will use simulated patients to help students synthesize and refine their history taking, examination, and diagnostic skills. Emphasis will be placed on the doctor-patient relationship, including appropriate ethical boundaries and effective communication skills. Students will also practice record keeping skills, including the preparation of SOAP notes. This course will require students to perform male and female sensitive exams (breast and pelvic) on standardized patients.
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6202 

      EM6305   Psychopathology & Health Psychology (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 3.0
      This course includes: 

      1. review and discussion of the major topics in health psychology including examination of the relationships  of psychopathology, lifestyle and personal relationships to physical health. Topics include risk factors and treatments for physical disorders such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic pain as well as the exploration of the co-morbidity of physical and psychological disorders;  
      2. an examination of the nine basic categories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, somatoform, substance use disorders, sleep disorders, eating disorders, sexual dysfunction, cognitive disorders, and psychosis) with emphasis on screening, diagnosis and management in a primary care setting. Students are asked to review current theories and their implication for practice. The course will include an overview of psychopathology and health psychology with self-directed learning to include cases, discussion, application of principles, article reviews, presentations, and field projects. 

      EM6324   Clinical Approach to Special Populations (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 3.0
      This course focuses on the differential diagnosis and management of common conditions that present in the pediatric and elderly populations. Patient presentation, identification, prevention, and management are addressed in lectures and large group experiences. Learning is driven by clinical cases and enhanced by the lectures. Management of these conditions includes the study of the clinical aspects of nutritional science (including diet therapy and botanical medicine), manipulation, csc, and rehabilitation.  
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      EM6403   Clinical Natural Medicine*   Credits 2.0
      This course will give students opportunities to practice diagnosing and managing conditions in a broad-based, conservative care (primary health care) setting. Students will apply a comprehensive skill set, including physical examination procedures, manual therapies, nutritional aspects of care, functional rehabilitation, exercise prescription, and the application of physiological, biochemical and pharmacological therapeutic protocols. Case examples that demonstrate the broad scope of chiropractic practice will be presented by the primary instructor, and depending on availability, guest presenters, to provide foundational information that will serve to validate the management options available to the chiropractic physician. The course is designed to help the student “put it all together,” integrating basic and clinical sciences knowledge in terms of managing patients in the outpatient setting. Lists that report the most common conditions presenting to primary care physician’s office will serve as a basis for evaluating management strategies.   
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6304, FR6309; FR6307, MM6220, NN6206; NN6301, NN6308
      Corequisite: IC7000
      *This course will be eliminated from the program for any student starting in the Spring of 2022 and thereafter.  

      EM6405  Doctor-Patient Relationship *    Credits 2.0
      This course focuses on the practical issues of patient management in practice. Students are asked to explore the literature to broaden their understanding of the issues in the field and then reflect on and actively develop strategies for their relationships with patients and other health care providers. Lecture and discussion topics include: structures in doctor-patient interaction; models of the doctor-patient interaction; doctor-patient boundaries; the impact of the -doctor-patient relationship on health care outcomes; the impact of the doctor-patient relationship on patient satisfaction; culturally-responsive health care; the sociological context of patient suffering; co-creation of the patient’s story in a therapeutic relationship; death, dying and palliative health care; management of the abused patient; and the doctor’s responsibilities to the community and society.  Class time is used to explore doctor-patient relationship issues through lectures, cases, guest presentations, structured interpersonal exercises, article reviews, and discussion.
      Prerequisite: EM6210
      *This course will be eliminated from the program for any student starting in the Spring of 2022 and thereafter. 

       EM6406  Dermatology   Credits 1.5
      This course is designed to help students gain necessary knowledge and build skill in observation and clinical reasoning for the diagnosis and management of common diseases of the skin encountered in a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting.
      Prerequisite:  EM6202*, EM6116**  
      * = Fall 2021 / ** =  Effective Spring 2022 

      EP5401  Evidence-Based Practice: Critical Appraisal of the Biomedical Literature (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 1.0
      This course will expand upon the skills developed to introduce the role of research, including the interpretation and critical analysis of research reports and studies, in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The course will provide the foundation to equip students to be consumers of published research and to engage in building knowledge to enhance their professional practice and service delivery through the use of scientific methods, as well as to identify the strengths and weaknesses of those methods in published research. This is done to support the education and efforts of CAM practitioners for use with and on behalf of patients. Emphasis throughout the course will be placed on preparing students to identify research findings that will assist them in being more effective practitioners. Special emphasis will be placed on understanding the methods traditionally used in the research process, critical thinking, interpretation of research designs and analytical methods used, and on technology used to support its dissemination.
      Prerequisite: None 

       EP5410   Evidence-Based Practice: Critical Appraisal of the Biomedical Literature  (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 1.0
      This course will expand upon the skills developed to introduce the role of research, including the interpretation and critical analysis of research reports and studies, in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The course will provide the foundation to equip students to be consumers of published research and to engage in building knowledge to enhance their professional practice and service delivery through the use of scientific methods, as well as to identify the strengths and weaknesses of those methods in published research. This is done to support the education and efforts of CAM practitioners for use with and on behalf of patients. Emphasis throughout the course will be placed on preparing students to identify research findings that will assist them in being more effective practitioners. Special emphasis will be placed on understanding the methods traditionally used in the research process, critical thinking, interpretation of research designs and analytical methods used, and on technology used to support its dissemination.
      Prerequisite: None 

      EP6310   Evidence-Based Practice: Applied Evidence-Based Practice  (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 1.0
      This course emphasizes the professional application of evidence-based practice (EBP). Students will use current topics of importance to chiropractors, such as the reported association between manipulation and stroke. To highlight the way evidence is an integral part of their future practice. Students will learn the research origins of professional guidelines and how research will shape their chiropractic practice, including the use of high yield examination procedure. The course will also focus on communicating the evidence in written and oral formats to peers, insurance companies, other healthcare professionals, and patient through exercises such as independent medical evaluations and reviews.  Students will develop a plan for how they will use an evidence-based practice approach, including an understanding of research writing.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      EP6316  Research –Evidence Based Clinical Applications  (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 1.0
      This course emphasizes the professional application of evidence-based practice (EBP). Students will use current topics of importance to chiropractors, such as the reported association between manipulation and stroke. To highlight the way evidence is an integral part of their future practice. Students will learn the research origins of professional guidelines and how research will shape their chiropractic practice, including the use of high yield examination procedure. The course will also focus on communicating the evidence in written and oral formats to peers, insurance companies, other healthcare professionals, and patient through exercises such as independent medical evaluations and reviews.  Students will develop a plan for how they will use an evidence-based practice approach, including an understanding of research writing.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      EP6410   Evidence-Based Practice: Journal Club   (Through Fall 2021)     Credits 0.5
      This class is an interactive course designed to sharpen the student’s Advanced Topics in Spinal Care Advanced Topics in Spinal Care  research literacy and evidence-based practice (EBP) skills. Applied EBP is emphasized, including questioning, researching, analyzing, and communicating clinically relevant information. The overall objective of this course is to create sound EBP habits in students preparing to become physicians. Students will research, develop, and present a journal of clinically relevant, important, and applicable research literature to a small group of peers and practicing clinical mentors and professionals, using key evidence-based practice skills (asking, accessing, appraising, applying, and assessing) along with the concepts of critical appraisal of the literature. Emphasis is placed on how the research and clinical literature impacts clinical decisions. 
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase II 

      EP6413     Literature Research and Review (Evidence Based Practice: Journal Club)  (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 0.5
      This class is an interactive course designed to sharpen the student’s Advanced Topics in Spinal Care Advanced Topics in Spinal Care  research literacy and evidence-based practice (EBP) skills. Applied EBP is emphasized, including questioning, researching, analyzing, and communicating clinically relevant information. The overall objective of this course is to create sound EBP habits in students preparing to become physicians. Students will research, develop, and present a journal of clinically relevant, important, and applicable research literature to a small group of peers and practicing clinical mentors and professionals, using key evidence-based practice skills (asking, accessing, appraising, applying, and assessing) along with the concepts of critical appraisal of the literature. Emphasis is placed on how the research and clinical literature impacts clinical decisions. 
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase II 

      FH5106  Fundamentals of Natural Medicine & Historical Perspectives (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 1.0
      In this course, students will develop an understanding of the evolution, structure and societal role of their profession. This includes both a study of the origins as well as the contemporary practice and regulatory milieu of chiropractic and naturopathic medicine. Certain aspects of the practice are highlighted including the components of the medical record, the importance of physical examination and interviewing, and the uses and general methods of searching medical databases for evidence. Students are encouraged to create a vision for their future professional work to serve as a framework for the longer process of becoming a chiropractic or naturopathic physician. 
      Prerequisite: None 

      FH5108   Introduction to Clinical Medicine (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 1.0
      In this course, students will develop an understanding of the evolution, structure and societal role of their profession. This includes both a study of the origins as well as the contemporary practice and regulatory milieu of chiropractic and naturopathic medicine. Certain aspects of the practice are highlighted including the components of the medical record, the importance of physical examination and interviewing, and the uses and general methods of searching medical databases for evidence. Students are encouraged to create a vision for their future professional work to serve as a framework for the longer process of becoming a chiropractic or naturopathic physician. 
      Prerequisite: None 

      FH5310   Whole Health Concepts & Philosophical Perspectives* (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 1.0
      This course will expand on the whole health concepts that were first introduced in the Fundamentals of Natural Medicine course. Concepts to be explored will include, but are not limited to: the dynamic interrelationship between various body systems in both normal and pathological states; the impact of external factors on various body systems, such as environmental, life style, nutritional, physical fitness, psychosocial, and stress; integrating whole health concepts into everyday life and patient care. Logical analysis of the principles underlying philosophical perspectives will also be discussed. 
      Prerequisite: FH5106
      *This course will be eliminated from the program for any student starting in the Spring of 2022 and thereafter. 

       FR6204   Functional Rehabilitation I: Introduction to Therapeutic Exercise and Spinal Rehabilitation (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 3.0
      The essential premise of this course is to develop the student’s knowledge base for progressing the patient’s care beyond the acute phase of management and develop stability to the axial skeleton via therapeutic exercise and other evidence-influenced regional stabilization interventions. The student will also establish a knowledge base of functional assessments. Evidence-influenced functional assessments for the spine will be detailed in this course allowing the student to effectively measure the physical capacity of the patient and then use this information to design a physical rehabilitation program for the identified deficiencies. Course content will be presented in both a lecture and lab setting.
      Prerequisites: EM6112, EM6120 

      FR6216     Sports and Musculoskeletal Functional Rehabilitation I  (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 3.0
      The essential premise of this course is to develop the student’s knowledge base for progressing the patient’s care beyond the acute phase of management and develop stability to the axial skeleton via therapeutic exercise and other evidence-influenced regional stabilization interventions. The student will also establish a knowledge base of functional assessments. Evidence-influenced functional assessments for the spine will be detailed in this course allowing the student to effectively measure the physical capacity of the patient and then use this information to design a physical rehabilitation program for the identified deficiencies. Course content will be presented in both a lecture and lab setting.
      Prerequisites: EM6113, EM6121 

      FR6307  Physiological Therapeutics: Modalities (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 4.5
      This course introduces therapeutic modalities and their practical application in the clinical setting. Therapies include actinotherapy, thermotherapy, hydrotherapy, cryotherapy, mechanotherapy, and various electrostimulation modalities.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

      FR6318 Physiotherapies & Advanced Modalities (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 4.5
      This course introduces therapeutic modalities and their practical application in the clinical setting. Therapies include actinotherapy, thermotherapy, hydrotherapy, cryotherapy, mechanotherapy, and various electrostimulation modalities.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      FR6309      Functional Rehabilitation II: Extremity Rehabilitation (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 3.0
      This course is a continuation of FR6204 and further develops the student’s knowledge base for progressing the patient’s care for extremity injuries. The student will be instructed how to apply the same fundamental principles of functional restoration to a wide variety of common extremity injuries via an evidence-influenced approach. The student will also learn how the basis of the spine contributes to the kinetic chain and the physical capacity of the extremities. Course content will be presented in both a lecture and lab setting.
      Prerequisite: FR6204  

      FR6319       Sports and Musculoskeletal Functional  Rehabilitation II (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 3.0
      This course is a continuation of FR6204 and further develops the student’s knowledge base for progressing the patient’s care for extremity injuries. The student will be instructed how to apply the same fundamental principles of functional restoration to a wide variety of common extremity injuries via an evidence-influenced approach. The student will also learn how the basis of the spine contributes to the kinetic chain and the physical capacity of the extremities. Course content will be presented in both a lecture and lab setting.
      Prerequisite: FR6216 

      FR6412        Sports Medicine   Credits 2.0
      This course expands on basic knowledge from prior courses and emphasizes sports medicine in general chiropractic care and athletic injuries. The focus will be on recreational and intramural level athletes, risk factors, avoidance, and treatment. This course introduces postgraduate course work such as CCSP, DACBSP, or DACRB programs
      Prerequisite: FR6204, FR6309

       IC7000      Clinic Internship I (Through  Fall 2021)    Credits 11.0
      Clinic Internship I, although designated as a laboratory in a curricular sense, marks the advent of the student’s practical application of the basic and clinical sciences in a clinical setting. Students will receive close supervision, guidance and instruction in the delivery of health care by licensed clinical personnel, as well as mentoring by senior interns. Students participating in clinical experiences are expected to exhibit clinical competence and professionalism (including knowledge of and strict adherence to confidentiality and privacy policies). Clinic Internship I operations will closely mirror the experiences of Clinic Internship II and III, including but not limited to clinic forms, diagnostic evaluations and therapeutic procedures. In each clinical experience (I, II, III), responsibilities are granted to interns based upon the clinician’s assessment that patient care competencies have been mastered. Clinical competencies relating to skills of historical interviewing, medical record documentation, physical examination (general, regional and specialty), laboratory testing (selection, performance and interpretation), evidence-based therapeutics, differential diagnoses development, ethics, professionalism, and interpersonal communication will be assessed (Competencies I-VII). 
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EC6303, RA6302; FR6307
      Co-requisites or Completion: EM6403, RA6408, RA6409  

       IC7010    Clinic Internship I (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 10.0
      Clinic Internship I, although designated as a laboratory in a curricular sense, marks the advent of the student’s practical application of the basic and clinical sciences in a clinical setting. Students will receive close supervision, guidance, and instruction in the delivery of health care by licensed clinical personnel as well as mentoring by senior interns. Students participating in clinical experiences are expected to exhibit clinical competence and professionalism (including knowledge of and strict adherence to confidentiality and privacy policies). Clinic Internship I operations will closely mirror the experiences of Clinic Internship II and III, including but not limited to clinic forms, diagnostic evaluations, and therapeutic procedures. In each clinical experience (I, II, III), responsibilities are granted interns based upon the clinician’s assessment that patient care competencies have been mastered. Clinical competencies relating to the skills of assessment and diagnosis, management plan, health promotion and disease prevention, communication and record keeping, professional ethics and jurisprudence, information and technology literacy, manipulation, and inter-professional education (meta-competencies 1-8) will be assessed throughout this course.
      Co-requisites or Completion: EM6403, RA6408, RA6424 

      IC7100 Clinic Internship II        Credits 17.0
      Students will further develop skills needed for successful management of patients and their conditions. Students will participate in off-campus rotations to expand their experience and knowledge base. All students will be evaluated for skill development, manipulative technique and case management. Students will participate in Quality Assurance activities to ensure that the patient chart is in compliance with the University’s Quality Assurance program. In-service training will be given in personnel issues for the practice, OSHA compliance issues for the private practice office, provisional credentialing of the chiropractic intern, and Medicare issues for the private practice.
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase II, IC7000*, IC7010**, American Heart Association BLS for Health Care Professionals with AED CPR certification. 
      *= Fall 2021 / ** = Effective Spring 2022 

      IC7200 Clinic Internship III  Credits 17.0
      Students will further develop skills needed for successful management of patients and their conditions. Off-campus rotations to expand the experience and knowledge base of the student are available for those that qualify. All students will be evaluated for skill development, manipulative technique and case management. Students will participate in Quality Assurance activities to ensure that the patient chart is in compliance with the University’s Quality Assurance program.
      Prerequisites: IC7100, American Heart Association BLS for Health Care Professionals with AED CPR certification.
      * A listing of the Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) Clinical Education Meta-Competencies is located at the end of the course descriptions in the current Bulletin.  

      MI5215 Fundamentals of Microbiology  Credits 2.0
      Students shall learn in this course the basic principles of medical microbiology and infectious disease. Learning outcomes will include the biology of bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens, mechanisms of infectious disease transmission, principles of aseptic practice, and antimicrobial agents. The course provides the conceptual basis for understanding pathogenic microorganisms and the mechanisms by which they cause disease in the human body. It also provides opportunities to develop diagnostic skills, including the use and interpretation of laboratory tests in the diagnosis of infectious diseases.
      Prerequisite: None 

      MI5303 Medical Microbiology I        Credits 4.5
      Considered in this course are the infections affecting the nervous system, upper respiratory system, blood and lymphatic system, skeletal system, and integumentary system. The discussion would include microbiologic characteristics, epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment, and prevention of various pathogens where appropriate public health aspects of these infections would be elaborated upon. In addition, basic and clinical immunology including immunologic disorders will be discussed in detail. All the content will be discussed in lecture, group, and case-based format. 
      Prerequisite: MI5215 

      MI5403   Medical Microbiology II    Credits 5.0
      Considered in this course are the infections affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and urinary systems. The discussion will include microbiologic characteristics, epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment, and prevention of various pathogens. Where appropriate, public health aspects of these infections will be elaborated upon. All the content will be discussed in lecture, group, and case-based format. 
      Prerequisite: MI5303 

      MM5120   Introduction to Palpation Skills & Landmark Identification (Through Fall 2021)       Credits 1.0
      The focus of this laboratory course is to introduce the skills of palpation and identification of osseous and soft tissue structures. We will introduce the concepts of static and motion palpation as well as palpation for trigger points, tender points, spasm, and other pathology. This course provides some basic clinical perspective to build upon the fundamentals introduced in the first trimester anatomy lab.
      Prerequisite:  None  

      MM5121     Technique I: Palpation and Landmarks (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 1.0
      In this laboratory course students will be introduced to the skills of palpation and identification of osseous and soft tissue structures. This laboratory course will introduce the concepts of static and motion palpation as well as palpation trigger points, tender points, spasm and other pathology. This course provides some basic clinical perspective to the fundamentals introduced in the first trimester anatomy lab. 
      Prerequisite:  None  

      MM5220        Manipulation of the Thoracic Spine (Through Fall 2021)       Credits 1.0
      This course teaches manipulation of the thoracic spine as an introduction to management of uncomplicated, common thoracic conditions. Teaching methods will include demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning. This is the student’s first manipulation course. It will lay the foundation for other manipulation courses by teaching concepts related to (i) the patient management process; (ii) spinal manipulation; and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship.
      Co-requisite: EM5207 

      MM5221     Technique II: Principals & Practice of Chiropractic  (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 2.0
      This course will discuss the history of chiropractic as healthcare profession and treatment for prevention, maintenance, and restoration of health. Students will learn the theories, models, and hypothesis of the intervertebral dysfunction complex and adjustment. Students will also learn diversified techniques, the basic concepts in chiropractic such as anatomical, pathophysiological, and biomechanical and be exposed to research models and the importance of research.
      Pre-requisites: Registered in the Chiropractic program 

       MM5222         Technique III: Manipulation of the Thoracic Spine & Ribs (Effective Spring 2022)       Credits 1.5 
      This course teaches the knowledge and skills needed to effectively and safely perform manipulative therapy to the thoracic spine, cervicothoracic and costovertebral regions to manage uncomplicated, common thoracic conditions. Students will utilize prior knowledge to identify osseous and soft tissue structures, skills of palpation and orthopedic tests correlating to the manipulative technique. This course is part of a stream of technique courses wherein techniques are sequentially added and skills and competence are further developed. It will lay the foundation for other Manipulation courses by teaching concepts related to (i) the patient management process; (ii) spinal manipulation, and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship. Teaching methods will include demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
      Corequisite: EM5213
       

      MM5320   Manipulation of the Pelvis, Lumbar Spine, T/L Junction (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 1.0
      The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the essential concepts and skills necessary to palpate and manipulate the pelvis and lumbar spine, and the thoracolumbar junction. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy biomechanics will be highly emphasized. Teaching methods will include prelab discussions, demonstrations, and skills laboratories. This course is part of a series or stream of technique courses wherein techniques are sequentially added and skills and competencies are further developed.
      Prerequisite: MM5220 

      MM5322    Technique IV: Manipulation of the Lumbo-sacral Spine, T/L Junction & Pelvis   (Effective Spring 2022)    Credits 1.5
      This course teaches students the knowledge and skills needed to effectively and safely perform manipulation of the Pelvis, Lumbar Spine & T/L Junction to manage uncomplicated, and common conditions. Students will utilize prior knowledge to identify osseous and soft tissue structures and skills of palpation. This course will lay the foundation for other Manipulation courses by teaching concepts related to (i) the patient management process; (ii) spinal manipulation; and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship. Teaching methods will include demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
      Prerequisite: MM5222     

      MM5420          Manipulation of the Cervical Spine and Cervico-Thoracic Junction (Through Fall 2021)        Credits 1.0
      This course will teach manipulation of the cervical spine as an introduction towards management of uncomplicated, common cervical conditions. Teaching methods will include demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning. As the third manipulation course, it assists in building on previous concepts related to (i) the patient management process; (ii) spinal manipulation; and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship.
      Prerequisites: AN5101; AN5102; FH5106; MM5220; MM5320 

      MM5422   Technique V: Manipulation of the Cervical Spine, C/T Junction and First Rib  (Effective Spring 2022)  Credits 1.5
      This course teaches students the knowledge and skills needed to effectively and safely perform manipulation of the Cervical Spine and Cervico-Thoracic Junction to manage uncomplicated, and common conditions. Students will utilize prior knowledge to identify osseous and soft tissue structures and skills of palpation. This course will lay the foundation for other Manipulation courses by teaching concepts related to (i) the patient management process; (ii) spinal manipulation; and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship. Teaching methods will include demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.  
      Prerequisites: AN5101; AN5102; FH5106; MM5220; MM5320 

      MM6110    Soft Tissue Management  (Through Fall 2021)      Credits 0.5
      This laboratory course introduces soft tissue therapies and builds upon brief introductions from previous E&M classes. Techniques for enhancing soft tissue function and reducing pathology are presented.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I  

       MM6114    Myofascial Treatments (Effective Spring 2022)      Credits 1.0
      This laboratory course introduces soft tissue therapies and builds upon brief introductions from previous E&M classes. Techniques for enhancing soft tissue function and reducing pathology are presented.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I  

      MM6208        Orthopedic Musculoskeletal Imaging (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 1.0
      This course will consider the practical application of imaging the orthopedic patient. The course will concentrate on the most common advanced imaging modalities currently used in private practice, relating them to various orthopedic conditions encountered in private practice. The course will review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and treatment of various orthopedic conditions, and place a strong emphasis on the imaging required to evaluate these conditions, assess severity and monitor treatment or provide appropriate referral, when required.
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I; EM6112; EM6120 

      RA6425     Radiology: Orthopedic & Musculoskeletal Imaging  (Effective Spring 2022)      Credits 1.0
      This course will consider the practical application of imaging the orthopedic patient. The course will concentrate on the most common advanced imaging modalities currently used in private practice, relating them to various orthopedic conditions encountered in private practice. The course will review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, and treatment of various orthopedic conditions, and place a strong emphasis on the imaging required to evaluate these conditions, assess severity and monitor treatment or provide appropriate referral, when required.
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6113, EM6121 

      MM6220    Advanced Manual Therapy Techniques I (Through Fall 2021)      Credits 1.5
      This laboratory course presents assessment and treatment procedures for the hip, pelvis, lumbar, and lower thoracic spine regions. The assessment includes orthopedic testing and static and dynamic assessment of joint function. Treatment options for the findings noted during the examination are discussed. Treatment procedures emphasize joint manipulation with management considerations. Integrative methods to treat the spine that include blocking, instrument assisted adjusting, and drop table procedures are incorporated in the course.
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6120 

       MM6122    Technique VI: Advanced Adjustments (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 1.5
      This laboratory course presents assessment and treatment procedures for the hip, pelvis, lumbar, and lower thoracic spine regions. The assessment includes orthopedic testing and static and dynamic assessment of joint function. Treatment options for the findings noted during the examination are discussed. Treatment procedures emphasize joint manipulation with management considerations. Integrative methods to treat the spine that include blocking, instrument assisted adjusting, and drop table procedures are incorporated in the course.
      Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6121 

       MM6221    Diversified Technique* (Through Fall 2021)        Credits 1.0
      This course emphasizes enhancement of fundamental skills, analysis, and technique selection necessary for the chiropractic physician to apply Diversified Technique in the clinical setting in an effective and precise manner. Lecture/lab sessions will be used to demonstrate and individually instruct the students in the proper application of the common as well as less frequently employed diversified techniques that are utilized in special or unique situations. Rationale for adaptations that can be made will be stressed and explained. 
      *This course will be eliminated from the program for any student starting in the Spring of 2022 and thereafter. 

      MM6320     End Range Loading & Flexion Distraction Technique (Through Fall 2021)          Credits 1.0
      This laboratory course presents the utilization of the end range loading (MDT) and flexion/distraction manipulative procedures in the management of common clinical presentations.
      Prerequisite: MM6220 

      MM6321     Technique VII: Manipulation Systems (Effective Spring 2022)    Credits 1.0
      This laboratory course presents the utilization of the end range loading (MDT) and flexion/distraction manipulative procedures in the management of common clinical presentations.
      Prerequisite: MM6122  

      MM6420     Advanced Manual Therapy Techniques II (Through Fall 2021)      Credits 0.5
      This laboratory course is a condition-based course on the manual therapy management of the conditions in the cervical, thoracic, lumbar spine, and upper and lower extremities. Additional conditions encountered in chiropractic practice such as colic, restless leg syndrome, TMJ syndrome, otitis media, and essential hypertension will also be included.
      Prerequisite: MM6220  

      MM6422      Technique VIII: Manipulation Clinical Application (Effective Spring 2022)       Credits 0.5
      This laboratory course is a condition-based course highlighting the use of manual therapy in the management of conditions in the cervical spine, thoracic spine, lumbar spine, as well as the upper and lower extremities. Additional conditions commonly encountered in chiropractic practice such as colic, restless leg syndrome, TMJ syndrome, otitis media, and essential hypertension will also be included.
      Prerequisite: MM6122

      EM6411   Clinical Skills Seminar   Credits 1.0 

      This course is a lecture, assessment, and self-directed learning environment aimed to improve the student’s rapid medical interviewing, diagnostic imaging, and case management clinical skills and critical judgement. The student is responsible for the study direction and concentration of his or her clinical skills improvement through rubric-based assessment, self-assessment, patient case review and discussion. Students will also have an opportunity to critique his or her peers and give constructive ideas for clinical skills advancement.
      Prerequisite: EM6304*, EC6313** 
      *=Fall 2021 / ** = Effective Spring 2022 

      NN5406    Science of Diet & Nutrition*    Credits 3.0
      This course provides a basic understanding of the fundamentals of human nutrition and stresses the essentials of the basis for good nutritional status. It serves as the basic nutrition course that follows the basic science presentation of the macronutrients and the micronutrients presented in the Nutritional Biochemistry course (BC5308). Topics presented in this course include a review of the macronutrients and micronutrients with emphasis on the health properties of each as well as the severe deficiency states for both micronutrients and macronutrients. Digestion, absorption and transport of the nutrients, and consequences of malabsorption care are covered. Energy production, energy balance and weight management are also described. Food habits in the United States and nutrition across the life cycle are discussed in the course. Male and female health, sports and exercise nutrition, enteral and parenteral nutrition procedures as well as an introduction to the science of food preparation and handling are included. An introduction to nutritional status assessment using food frequency questionnaires and diet history is given.
      Prerequisite: BC5308 

      *This course will be eliminated from the program for any student starting in the Spring of 2022 and thereafter. 

      NN6107    Pharmacology I        Credits 3.0
      This course provides a basic understanding of the use of drugs in western medicine for the treatment of disease. Topics covered in this course will be descriptions of drug names and classification, general principles of drug action and metabolism that will cover the area of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors influencing drug action and a discussion of drug safety are addressed. A large part of this course will be a description of the drug actions on body systems including all the major organ systems and the disorders and diseases in each of the systems. Included will be a description of the mechanism of action, major untoward effects, and contraindications for each drug and drug category. Interactions with other drugs and botanicals as well as a description of the nutrients that are depleted by each of the drugs will be covered. Drug actions on infection and immune system regulation as well as chemical dependency and substance abuse will be described. A discussion of poisons and their antidotes is included. 
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      NN6108    Botanical Medicine     Credits 3.0
      This course presents the fundamentals of herbal science and pharmacognosy. Topics included are herbal terminology, principles of herbal pharmacology and treatment, as well as mechanisms for optimizing safety. Dosage forms and preparations and standardization are covered in detail. Extraction and purification of the active ingredients are explained in the course. Herbal approaches to maintenance of health and treatment of disease as well as the strengthening of organ systems are presented for all the major organ systems of the body and many of the primary care diseases found in each of those organ systems. A major focus in the second half of this course is a description of the Materia Medica for 30 of the common botanical medicines used in western medicine. Active ingredient, part of the plant used, major therapeutic use, untoward effects, contraindications and interactions with drugs, and other botanical medicines are covered in detail.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      NN6206    Pharmacology II      Credits 3.0
      This course provides a basic understanding of the use of pharmaceuticals utilized in allopathic medicine for the treatment of disease. Topics covered in this course will be descriptions of drug names and classification, general principles of drug action and metabolism, which will cover the areas of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. Factors influencing drug action and a discussion of drug safety are addressed. A large part of this course will be a description of the drugs’ action on body systems including all the major organ systems and diseases of these systems. Included will be a description of the mechanism of action, major untoward effects and contraindications for each drug and drug category. 
      Prerequisite: NN6107  

      NN6301     Clinical Nutrition (Through Fall 2021)      Credits 4.0
      This course offers a nutritional approach to the prevention and treatment of disease, with an emphasis on maintenance of health and homeostasis and specific disease conditions and their prevention. Nutritional assessment methods are covered in detail and the methods for obtaining a physical exam of nutrition health and means to assess nutritional status are covered. A description of the approach to nutrition counseling and the nutrition counseling session are described. Topics covered are food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), health history and physical exam forms, and food diary and intake forms. The diseases of the major organ systems in the body are covered with the musculoskeletal, joint health, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems covered in depth. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and thyroid diseases are also described. Liver detoxification, adrenal stress syndrome, and a functional medicine approach to the liver, adrenal, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract are described. Other diseases covered are central nervous system disease and infectious and dermatological conditions. A discussion of immune up-regulation, glandular products, chelation therapy, and glyconutrients is held. The use of all nutritional therapies, botanical medicines, and other functional medicine approaches to maintenance of health and prevention and treatment of disease are described. 
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

       NN6322      Evidence Based Nutritional Therapies  (Effective Spring 2022)       Credits 4.0
      This course offers a nutritional approach to the prevention and treatment of disease, with an emphasis on maintenance of health and homeostasis within specific disease states. Nutritional assessment methods are covered in detail, including the methods for obtaining a physical exam of nutrition health and means to assess nutritional status. The nutrition care process and approach to nutrition counseling sessions are discussed. The diseases of the major organ systems in the body are covered including joint health, gastrointestinal, renal, liver, and cardiovascular systems. Metabolic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and thyroid conditions are also explored. Nutritional screening, assessment, and treatment within each specific disease state will be emphasized in relationship to the integrative therapeutic application of nutrition in a clinical setting.
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      NN6308        Botanical Medicine II (Through Fall 2021)        Credits 4.0
      This advanced course will engage the subject of therapeutic herbalism in great detail. The strategies for addressing dysfunction in the organ systems will be outlined. Specific aspects of botanicals will be studied including: constituents, pharmacognosy, specific indications, contraindications, toxicity, and dosing parameters. In the traditional manner, the herbs will be studied according to therapeutic category (nervines, hepatics, anodynes, etc.). Close attention will be paid to the potential for herb-herb and herb-drug interaction. Students will practice compounding and dispensing as part of their clinical rotations, but this course will provide the theoretical information to enable them to do so.
      Prerequisite: NN6108 

      NU6404    Nutritional Therapies in Functional Medicine (Effective Spring 2022)    Credits 3.0
      This course is an advanced nutrition course that will take in to account a patient’s history, physical findings and clinical laboratory procedures to determine the use of nutraceuticals, botanicals, glandulars, bio-identical hormones and Ayurveda medicine to restore and maintain health and maximize organ function. Students will learn how to correlate a patient intake, physical examination findings and functional testing to develop a nutritional therapy plan.
      Prerequisite: EM6117, NN6108, NN6322 

      PA5204 Fundamentals of Pathology   Credits 3.0 
      This course provides an introduction to the basic changes in the morphology of the cells, tissues, and organs in diseased states. Extensive use of visual aids with the latest computer technology helps students to differentiate abnormal from normal, and to correlate the clinical aspects of the alterations. Included also is discussion on general characteristics, classification and differential diagnosis of cysts, benign and malignant tumors, and other neoplastic entities. All content will be discussed in lecture and group activity/discussion format.  
      Prerequisites: AN5107, PH5103 

      PA5302     Systems Pathology I    Credits 4.0 
      Considered in this course are the pathologies peculiar to and characteristic of the various systems of the body. The systems examined are the nervous system, myopathy, neuropathy, bone and joint pathology, immunopathology, hematopathology, and dermatopathology. Each condition is studied from the standpoint of general characteristics, gross and microscopic appearance, and clinical course.  
      Prerequisite: PA5204 
      Co-requisites: AN5304, AN5305, AN5307 
       

      PA5402 Systems Pathology II      Credits 6.0
      Considered in this course are the pathologies peculiar to and characteristic of various systems of the body. The systems examined are respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive and mammary, gastrointestinal (inclusive of liver, gall bladder and pancreas), urinary, and endocrine.  
      Prerequisite: PA5302 
      Co-requisite: PH5405 

       PH5103 Cellular Physiology & Hematology   Credits 4.0 
      In this course, students will review, in a problem-based setting, the basic science concepts related to the physiology of cellular membranes and organelles, along with the integrated functioning of the blood as a tissue. The physiology lab exercises will consist of problem sets and case studies, designed to integrate and apply material and concepts introduced through the accompanying lectures each week. 
      Co-requisite: AN5107 

       PH5208 Neurophysiology  Credits 3.5 
      The purpose of this course is to study the neurophysiology of the nervous system. The complex signals created and utilized by the nervous system to control most bodily functions will be studied in depth to gain a better understanding of how the human nervous system functions. Areas of study will include: synaptic transmission; autonomic control; sensory systems including the special senses of vision, hearing, touch, balance (vestibular function), taste and smell; signal integration in the CNS; control of the motor system (including skeletal muscle physiology); and higher cortical functions such as speech, sleep and associational areas of the brain.  
      Prerequisite: PH5103 
      Co-requisites: AN5201, AN5202, AN5203 

      PH5306   Neuroendocrinology, GI & Reproductive Physiology   Credits 4.0 
      This course will address neuroendocrine mechanisms that operate to maintain homeostatic control over various systems and states within the body. The primary focus will be upon the normal mechanisms and reflexes that operate to maintain a healthy state. Specific topics will include regulation of the reproductive, gastrointestinal, and thermoregulatory systems. Neuroendocrine feedback pathways that regulate metabolic and mineral homeostasis will also be discussed. Course instruction will be through lecture and group discussion of selected problems and cases. 
      Prerequisite: PH5208  

      PH5405 Cardiovascular, Respiratory & Renal Physiology  Credits 5.0 
      This course will present the normal physiologic function of the respiratory system (breathing, ventilation and gas exchange), circulatory system (blood pressure, cardiac output, pressure and flow homeostasis, and cardiac electrophysiology), and the kidney (conservation and excretion, and volume homeostasis). Content will be presented through lecture, laboratory, and supplemental problem exercises. Structure-function relationships and mechanisms of regulation will be emphasized. Laboratory-based measurements on human subjects will be used along with computer simulations to demonstrate and illustrate core concepts. Supplemental problem exercises will provide students the opportunity to demonstrate and test their understanding and capability to apply core concepts toward explanative assessment of how each of these systems function.  
      Prerequisites: AN5304, AN5305, PH5306 

      RA5206 Normal Radiographic Anatomy & Variants (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 1.5 
      Chiropractic physicians must have a thorough understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the skeletal system if they are to detect abnormal pathology in these regions. This course provides background information as a basis for courses in musculoskeletal imaging diagnosis, essentially designed to help students differentiate a normal structure from pathology. The study of normal variants and anomalies of the skeletal system and skeletal measurement procedures are presented to give students an overall understanding of variations of normal, which both mimic pathology and often present with unique clinical challenges.  
      Prerequisites: AN5101, AN5102  

      RA5416 Normal Radiographic Anatomy & Variants (Effective Spring 2022)      Credits 1.5 
      Chiropractic physicians must have a thorough understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the skeletal system if they are to detect abnormal pathology in these regions. This course provides background information as a basis for courses in musculoskeletal imaging diagnosis, essentially designed to help students differentiate a normal structure from pathology. The study of normal variants and anomalies of the skeletal system and skeletal measurement procedures are presented to give students an overall understanding of variations of normal, which both mimic pathology and often present with unique clinical challenges.  
      Prerequisites: AN5101, AN5102 

      RA5407 Radiation Physics & Technology (Through Fall 2021)   Credits 1.0 
      This course explains the basics of X-ray production, interaction with matter, image production, and patient protection. Emphasis is on troubleshooting common technical errors that create artifacts and poor diagnostic image quality. Radiation biology is also presented to provide the student with a healthy respect for the intrinsic dangers of ionizing radiation and the principle of quality films at the lowest possible exposure.  
      Prerequisite:  RA5206 

      RA5205 Radiation Physics & Technology (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 1.0 
      This course explains the basics of X-ray production, interaction with matter, image production, and patient protection. Emphasis is on troubleshooting common technical errors that create artifacts and poor diagnostic image quality. Radiation biology is also presented to provide the student with a healthy respect for the intrinsic dangers of ionizing radiation and the principle of quality films at the lowest possible exposure.  
      Prerequisite:  RA5416 

      RA6109 Fundamentals of Imaging: Arthritides & Trauma (Through Fall 2021)       Credits 2.5 
      Arthritic disorders and associated connective tissue disorders are discussed including distinctive radiographic characteristics and associated clinical presentations of the basic categories of joint disease. Traumatic conditions are presented with special emphasis on the musculoskeletal system, both spine and extremity. Laboratory exercises reinforce and apply core material.  
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I  

      RA6115 Radiology: Arthritides and Trauma (Effective Spring 2022)     Credits 2.5 
      Arthritic disorders and associated connective tissue disorders are discussed including distinctive radiographic characteristics and associated clinical presentations of the basic categories of joint disease. Traumatic conditions are presented with special emphasis on the musculoskeletal system, both spine and extremity. Laboratory exercises reinforce and apply core material.  
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I  

      RA6205       Fundamentals of Imaging: Skeletal Dysplasia, Tumors, Endocrine, & Hematopoietic Disorders (Through Fall 2021)    Credits 2.5
      A systematic and orderly approach to interpretation of plain film radiography is stressed, complemented by associated findings relative to special imaging modalities. Clinical correlation of anomalies, bone pathology, joint abnormalities, and soft tissue changes are presented. Laboratory sessions focus upon the development of skills necessary for the acquisition of patient information, and the interpretation of X-rays pertaining to bone pathology. Furthermore, laboratory sessions afford students the opportunity to study actual case studies, including clinical presentations and imaging of material presented during lecture.  
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

       RA6217      Radiology: Tumors & Dysplasia (Effective Spring 2022)    Credits 2.5 
      A systematic and orderly approach to interpretation of plain film radiography is stressed, complemented by associated findings relative to special imaging modalities. Clinical correlation of anomalies, bone pathology, joint abnormalities, and soft tissue changes are presented. Laboratory sessions focus upon the development of skills necessary for the acquisition of patient information, and the interpretation of X-rays pertaining to bone pathology. Furthermore, laboratory sessions afford students the opportunity to study actual case studies, including clinical presentations and imaging of material presented during lecture.  
      Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I 

      RA6302 Fundamentals of Imaging: Chest & Abdomen (Through Fall 2021)      Credits 2.5 
      A systematic and orderly approach to interpretation of plain film radiography is stressed, complemented by associated findings relative to special imaging modalities. Normal radiographic anatomy, anomalies, and pathology of the chest and abdomen are presented with associated clinical presentations. Laboratory sessions focus upon the development of skills necessary for the acquisition of patient information, and the interpretation of X-rays pertaining to pathology of the chest and abdomen. Furthermore, laboratory sessions afford students the opportunity to study actual case studies, including clinical presentations and imaging of  material presented during lecture.  
      Prerequisites: RA6109, RA6205  

      RA6323 Radiology: Chest & Abdomen (Effective Spring 2022)    Credits 2.5 
      A systematic and orderly approach to interpretation of plain film radiography is stressed, complemented by associated findings relative to special imaging modalities. Normal radiographic anatomy, anomalies, and pathology of the chest and abdomen are presented with associated clinical presentations. Laboratory sessions focus upon the development of skills necessary for the acquisition of patient information, and the interpretation of X-rays pertaining to pathology of the chest and abdomen. Furthermore, laboratory sessions afford students the opportunity to study actual case studies, including clinical presentations and imaging of  material presented during lecture.  
      Prerequisites: RA6115, RA6217  

      RA6408        Report Writing & Advanced Imaging (Through Fall 2021)  Credits 1.0
      This course teaches the basics of writing a detailed and accurate radiology report emphasizing findings, impressions, and recommendations. The reports are written on a variety of normal and abnormal cases exposing the student to a variety of pathologic processes. The advanced imaging portion of this course focuses on the different types of advanced imaging, their uses and limitations, as well as clinical decision-making regarding proper indications to order advanced imaging. 
      Co-requisite:  IC7100 

      RA6423   Radiological Critical Thinking (Effective Spring 2022)   Credits 1.0 
      This course teaches the basics of writing a detailed and accurate radiology report emphasizing findings, impressions, and recommendations. The reports are written on a variety of normal and abnormal cases exposing the student to a variety of pathologic processes. The advanced imaging portion of this course focuses on the different types of advanced imaging, their uses and limitations, as well as clinical decision-making regarding proper indications to order advanced imaging. 
      Co-requisite:  IC7010  

      RA6409 Radiographic Positioning & Radiology Management (Through Fall 2021)     Credits 2.0 
      This course considers the practical parameters of X-ray technology including patient positioning, technique calculations, instrument operation, film processing, and other pertinent phases of technology. Students gain experience in the practical application of routine radiographic procedures via the use of energized and non-energized units and lab partners. The positioning portion of this class/lab focuses on radiography of the spine, extremities, abdomen, and chest. Additionally, this course presents guidelines for the design of an office X-ray facility, selection of equipment, and quality control that is needed to maintain optimum image formation. State and federal regulations governing these installations, the medico-legal aspects of diagnostic radiology, ethics, and record keeping are emphasized.   
      Co-requisite:  IC7100 

      RA6424         Advanced Radiology & Positioning (Effective Spring 2022)      Credits 2.0 
      This course considers the practical parameters of X-ray technology including patient positioning, technique calculations, instrument operation, film processing, and other pertinent phases of technology. Students gain experience in the practical application of routine radiographic procedures via the use of energized and non-energized units and lab partners. The positioning portion of this class/lab focuses on radiography of the spine, extremities, abdomen, and chest. Additionally, this course presents guidelines for the design of an office X-ray facility, selection of equipment, and quality control that is needed to maintain optimum image formation. State and federal regulations governing these installations, the medico-legal aspects of diagnostic radiology, ethics, and record keeping are emphasized.   
      Co-requisite:  IC7100