Doctor of Naturopathic Medicine

Course Descriptions

AN5101N Spine & Extremities Anatomy - Credits 5.0
In this course, students will learn in lecture and group formats, the normal structure and function of the spine and extremities. In the first portion of this course, students will be required to demonstrate core knowledge of the gross anatomy of spinal structures, including the pediatric spine, and relevant structures of the back. Students must also demonstrate an anatomical and functional understanding of the spinal cord, its meninges and the spinal nerves. In the second portion of the course, students will explore the gross anatomical structures of the extremities and their functions. The integrated gross anatomy laboratory exercises will address related basic science issues.
Corequisite: AN5102N

AN5102N Spine & Extremities Anatomy Lab - Credits 3.5
In this course, students will learn in laboratory format, the normal structure and function of the spine and extremities. In the first portion of this course, students will be required to demonstrate core knowledge of the gross anatomy of spinal structures, including the pediatric spine, and relevant structures of the back. Students must also demonstrate an anatomical and functional understanding of the spinal cord, its meninges and the spinal nerves. In the second portion of the course, students will explore the gross
anatomical structures of the extremities and their functions. The basic science component will integrate with the laboratory issues.
Corequisite: AN5101N

AN5107N Histology & Embryology I - Credits 2.5
In this course, students will be introduced to histology and human developmental anatomy. In the histology portion of the course, students will study the histology of the main tissues of the body, i.e., epithelium, connective, muscle, and nervous. In addition, students will study the histology of the blood, the vascular system, bone and cartilage, the integument, and lymphoid tissue. In the developmental anatomy portion of the course, students will learn about the events of the first three weeks of development and the development of the nervous system. In coordination with the corequisite gross anatomy course, students will also study axial and limb development.
Corequisite: AN5101N, AN5102N, PH5103N

AN5203N Neuroanatomy - Credits 5.5
The purpose of this course is to study the structures of the brain, spinal cord and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and their functions. The structures of the brain, spinal cord and ANS, and their functions, will be introduced to students through the following methods: lectures, group activities, self-directed learning, readings, and laboratory participation. The functions of these structures will be emphasized and their relevancy to clinical practice will be demonstrated through the use of patient paper cases and problems.
Prerequisite: AN5107N
Corequisites: AN5214N, PH5208N

AN5214N Head & Neck Anatomy - Credits 3.5
In this course, students will study, in lecture and group formats, the normal structure and function of the regions of the human head and neck. This includes gross anatomical structures as well as neuroanatomical structures. In addition, the embryology and histology of specific structures of the head and neck will be presented. This course is fully integrated with laboratory dissections presented in AN5102N. Gross anatomy and neuroanatomy exercises will address related basic science issues.
Prerequisite: AN5101N
Corequisites: AN5203N, PH5208N

AN5304N Thorax, Abdomen & Pelvic Anatomy - Credits 2.0
Students will study, in lecture and group formats, the normal structure and function of the organ systems associated with the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Specifically, this course will cover the gross anatomy of the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and urinary systems. Laboratory exercises will help guide students toward understanding the anatomical concepts associated with these systems. In addition, students will interrelate their anatomical knowledge with the Histology and Embryology
II course.
Prerequisites: AN5203N, AN5214N
Corequisites: AN5305N, AN5307N

AN5305N Thorax, Abdomen & Pelvic Anatomy Lab - Credits 2.0
Students will study, in laboratory format, the normal structure and function of the organ systems associated with the thorax, abdomen and pelvis. Specifically, this course will cover the gross anatomy of the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and urinary systems. Laboratory exercises will help guide students toward understanding the anatomical concepts associated with these systems. In addition, students will interrelate their anatomical knowledge with the Histology and Embryology
II course.
Corequisites: AN5304N, AN5307N

AN5307N Histology & Embryology II - Credits 2.5
In coordination with the corequisite gross anatomy course, students will learn the developmental anatomy and histology of the main systems of the chest, abdomen and pelvis in this course.
Prerequisite: AN5107N
Corequisites: AN5304N, AN5305N

BC5104N Human Biochemistry - Credits 4.0
The structure and functions of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and their reactions in metabolic pathways are investigated.
Corequisite: BC5105N

BC5105N Clinical Biochemistry - Credits 1.5
An introduction to techniques used in clinical analysis of amino acids, enzymes, redox states, serum cholesterol and lipoprotein quantification, and body composition.
Corequisite: BC5104N

BC5308N Nutritional Biochemistry - Credits 2.0
Vitamins and minerals will be studied with an emphasis on their biochemical involvement within human metabolic pathways and physiology. Non-essential nutrients will also be investigated with respect to their role in biochemistry and physiology.
Prerequisites: BC5104N, BC5105N

EM5207N Evaluation & Management of the Chest & Thoracic Spine - Credits 4.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the chest and thoracic spine. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the chest and thoracic spine, as well as examination skills for these areas. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, taking vitals, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, auscultation, percussion, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the chest and thoracic spine, such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the chest and thoracic spine. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
This is the students' first Evaluation and Management course. It will lay the foundation for other Evaluation and Management courses by teaching concepts related to (i) the patient interview, examination and management process; (ii) joint and soft tissue evaluation and manual therapies; and (iii) the doctor-patient relationship.
Prerequisites: AN5101N, AN5102N

EM5309N Evaluation & Management of the Abdomen, Pelvis & Lumbar Spine - Credits 4.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine, as well as examination skills for these areas. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, auscultation, percussion, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the abdomen, pelvis and lumbar spine. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisite: EM5207N

EM5408N Evaluation & Management of the Head, Neck & Cervical Spine - Credits 4.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the head, neck and cervical spine. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the head, neck and cervical spine, as well as examination skills for this area. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, auscultation, percussion, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the head, neck and cervical spine, such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics, and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the head, neck and cervical spine. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisite: EM5309N

EM6101N Evaluation & Management of the Extremities - Credits 4.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn the basic concepts and skills necessary for a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) physician to evaluate and manage the upper and lower extremities. Students will learn methods for obtaining a history specific to the extremities, as well as examination skills for this area. Skills covered in the course will include, but are not limited to, inspection, joint and soft tissue palpation, range of motion, orthopedic evaluation, and basic neurological examinations. This course will teach treatments applicable to the extremities, such as joint and soft tissue manipulation. The clinical presentation of normal anatomy, biomechanics and physiology will be emphasized, along with an introduction to the evaluation and management of uncomplicated common conditions. This course will integrate basic concepts in (i) preventive medicine, (ii) biochemical and nutritional foundations of health, (iii) determinants of health, and (iv) lifestyle counseling involving the extremities. Teaching methods will include lectures, demonstrations, skills laboratories, and problem-based large group discussions that focus on skills development and clinical reasoning.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

EM6103N Evaluation & Management of the GI/GU & Reproductive Systems - Credits 4.0
This course focuses on the clinical manifestations of disorders of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and female reproductive systems. The emphasis is on the etiology, presentation, diagnostic identification, management, and prevention of system conditions. Learning is driven by class lectures, case-based learning and self-directed small group assignments. Diagnostic evaluation includes appropriate laboratory testing, special testing and imaging. Management of system disorders includes the study of clinical aspects of nutritional therapy to include diet modification, botanical medicine, manipulation, and physical therapeutics.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

EM6104N Evaluation & Management of the Cardiovascular & Respiratory Systems - Credits 3.0
This course focuses on the differential diagnosis and management of common disorders of the cardiopulmonary system. Students are expected to develop skills in history collection, physical examination, laboratory evaluation, critical thinking, and differential evaluation. In addition to history taking and the physical exam, diagnosis of these conditions will include evaluation of electrocardiograms and various laboratory tests. Students are introduced to the various modalities that are available for the treatment of these disorders. Case presentations include, but are not limited to, disorders such as myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease,pneumoconiosis, and pneumonia. Management of these conditions will encompass the study of the clinical aspects of nutritional science including diet therapy and botanical medicine, manipulation, physiologic therapeutics, and rehabilitation.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

EM6106N Evaluation & Management of the Neurological System - Credits 3.0
This course presents a study of the procedures of the neurological history and examination, clinical correlation of neurological findings with other clinical data, an introduction to functional neurology, and the application of manipulation, massage, exercise, and other sensory input in the management of patients with neurological disorders. Methods of instruction include lecture, patient video presentations and clinical cases presented in a large group. Small group and self-directed learning activities outside of class include specific readings about neurological diseases/disorders and written assignments based on the readings.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

EM6202N Physical & Laboratory Diagnosis - Credits 8.0
The primary objective of this course is for students to learn laboratory diagnostic skills, and to reinforce history taking and physical diagnostic skills taught in the Evaluation and Management courses. This course will include comprehensive instruction about the laboratory testing process, including indications, the collection and preparation of samples, the interpretation and evaluation of laboratory test results, and associated record keeping techniques. The context of this course will be a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. The course will include commonly run profiles of hematology (including venipuncture skills), chemistry, urinalysis, fecal and sputum studies. This course's laboratory activities will require students to perform complete (head-to-toe) physical examinations on each other using skills that are introduced and reinforced in the course. Male and female sensitive examinations will be performed on
simulation technology.
Prerequisites: Phase I, EM5207N, EM5309N, EM5408N, EM6101N, EM6103N, EM6104N, NP6109N

EM6305N Psychopathology & Health Psychology - Credits 3.0
This course includes:
(i) review and discussion of the major topics in health psychology including examination of the relationships of psychopathology, lifestyle and personal relationships to physical health. Topics include risk factors and treatments for physical disorders such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and chronic pain as well as the exploration of the comorbidity of physical and psychological disorders.
(ii) an examination of diagnoses across the basic categories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, somatoform, substance use disorders, sleep disorders, eating disorders, sexual dysfunction, cognitive disorders, and psychosis) with emphasis on etiology, screening, diagnosis, and management in a primary care setting. Students are asked to review current theories and their implication for practice.
There are three hours of lecture presentation per week on the topics of psychopathology and health psychology. Self-directed learning is organized around additional material available through the course website and may include cases, articles, on-line presentations, etc.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

EM6406N Dermatology - Credits 1.0
This course is designed to help students develop necessary knowledge for the diagnosis and management of common diseases of the skin encountered in a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. All course content will be discussed in a lecture format.
Prerequisite: EM6202N

FH5106N Fundamentals of Natural Medicine & Historical Perspectives - Credits 3.0
Students are introduced to the historical perspective of the common principles and origins on which natural medicine concepts were founded and developed with emphasis on chiropractic and naturopathic medicine. The concepts of the science of manual therapy and its effect on tissue physiology, neurological processes and psychophysiological aspects are introduced. The whole health concept of patient care will be introduced in this course. This course will also introduce concepts of personal and collective duties of professionalism, ethics and self-reflection that must be developed by future physicians.
Prerequisite: None

FR6307N Physiological Therapeutics - Modalities - Credits 4.5
This course introduces therapeutic modalities and their practical application in the clinical setting. Therapies include actinotherapy, thermotherapy, hydrotherapy, cryotherapy, mechanotherapy, and various electrostimulation modalities.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

GE5404N Medical Genomics - Credits 2.0
The first half of this course is focused on the underlying basic sciences concepts required to understand the human genome (biochemistry, molecular biology and pathology), and students will be introduced to the biotechnology utilized for genetic analysis. The second half of the course will focus on the clinical, ethical, legal, and psychosocial aspects of medical genomics.
Prerequisite: PA5204N

HY5409N Hydrotherapy & Traditional Naturopathy - Credits 2.0
Hydrotherapy was the cornerstone therapy of the "nature cure" movement and of the pioneers of naturopathic medicine. Its effective use in both acute and chronic conditions belied a deep and comprehensive understanding of disease and the healing process. This course presents students with theory and skills of hydrotherapy. Practice in the constitutional method of hydrotherapy will be done until students are comfortable and confident enough to use the treatment in clinic. The use of a simple agent such as water and temperature will serve to demonstrate that healing can be supported and encouraged by safe, natural and gentle treatments that are nonetheless powerful.
Prerequisite: None

IN6216N Imaging ND Program I - Credits 2.5
The basic principles of the major modalities of diagnostic imaging are discussed. Radiographic images and discussion of common skeletal maladies encountered in general practice form the bulk of the material presented. Areas of major importance include the Arthritides, Trauma and Bone Pathology. Students will become familiar with the type of findings yielded by these imaging procedures. This course is designed for the naturopathic physician in general practice who will request and receive radiographic and other diagnostic imaging reports. Interpretation of these reports and knowing when to request them are the major learning outcomes.
Prerequisite: RA5206N

IN6316N Imaging ND Program II - Credits 2 .5
This is a continuation of IN6216N. Students will attend both lecture and laboratory sessions in order to cover the fundamentals of diagnostic imaging that they will need for naturopathic practice.
Prerequisite: IN6216N

MI5205N Fundamentals of Public Health - Credits 3.0
The focus of this course is to introduce students to the concepts of public health, health promotion and disease prevention. Individual, environmental and sociodemographic factors affecting the population's health will be discussed, along with organization of the public health system, health surveys, health policies, and health screening. Research literacy will also be a major focus in this course including searching quality databases, developing effective search strategies, recognizing various study designs, and determining the best evidence that supports various public health and health care topics.
Prerequisite: None

MI5303N Medical Microbiology I - Credits 4.5
Considered in this course are the infections affecting the nervous system, upper respiratory system, blood and lymphatic system, skeletal system, and integumentary system. The discussion would include microbiologic characteristics, epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment and prevention of various pathogens where appropriate public health aspects of these infections would be elaborated upon. In addition, basic and clinical immunology including immunologic disorders will be discussed in detail. All the content will be discussed in lecture, group and case-based format.
Prerequisite: MI5205N

MI5403N Medical Microbiology II - Credits 5.0
Considered in this course are the infections affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and urinary systems. The discussion will include microbiologic characteristics, epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment, and prevention of various pathogens. Where appropriate, public health aspects of these infections will be elaborated upon. All the content will be discussed in lecture, group and case-based format.
Prerequisite: MI5303N

MM6209N Advanced Manual Therapy Techniques - Credits 2.0
This course is designed to allow the student to refine their skills in all avenues of manual therapy techniques. Topics will include examination and treatment with manipulation of the entire appendicular and axial skeleton. Also included in this course will be flexion-distraction techniques, blocking techniques and instrument-aided adjustive techniques.
Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, EM6101N

NB6213N ND Practice Management I - Credits 2.0
Students begin planning what kind of practice is aligned with their interests, and the kind of setting/location in which that practice can succeed. The basics of the balance sheet are reviewed.
Prerequisite: None

NB6313N ND Practice Management II - Credits 2.0
In this course, the principles of marketing are explored. Marketing basics include using relationships, and using promotional techniques to advance your business. There is a group project on how to market a practice. Students will be asked to conceptualize a practice and identify all start-up needs. Some time will be devoted to skills in explaining and presenting services to patients, including the various naturopathic
treatment modalities.
Prerequisite: NB6213N

NB6413N ND Practice Management III/Jurisprudence - Credits 2.0
This course reviews skills in opening, closing or selling a practice. Finding an appropriate niche for services is discussed and particular emphasis is on unlicensed state practice - legal and appropriate communications that respect state law. A solid review of accounting practices, tax obligations and accounting software complement the practice management skills. Students will leave this course able to bring a business plan to a bank, and to effectively employ a loan or their own start-up resources. An appreciation of how to use business professionals, such as accountants, lawyers, marketing consultants, etc. is a recurring theme. The basics of medical jurisprudence are examined. Examples from various and diverse jurisdictions are discussed.
Prerequisite: NB6313N

ND6315N Hydrotherapy Clinical Rotation - Credits 1.0
    This rotation in the naturopathic medicine program is designed to give the student an opportunity to demonstrate basic skills in hydrotherapy in a clinical setting. Students will perform hydrotherapy treatments as assigned by the attending clinician. Although students on this rotation are not acting as interns, they will perform a basic intake (including vital signs), make chart entries, attend to patient needs, and suggest treatment options/modifications. Patient treatments are at the discretion and under the close supervision of the attending clinician. Interns from Phase III of the ND program may be paired with the student, or other NUHS interns, as deemed appropriate.
    Prerequisites: EM6202N, HY5409N

ND6317N Clinic Observation - Credits 2.0
Students will participate in clinic activities for three hours per week. Students in ND6317N will take on a more active role. During their shift, they will be paired with a senior intern (Phase III, Term One or Two) or faculty practitioner. Students will assist in the physical examination and research for the case. The clinic faculty and interns will expect students to come prepared to discuss cases in conference and to provide input into diagnosis and treatment. The thinking of the Phase II, Term Three student must have evidence of training in applied naturopathic clinical theory, as well as overall competence in diagnosis and therapeutics appropriate fore their standing in the naturopathic program. This rotation is also an opportunity for students to strengthen their skills of charting, for which they will be responsible whenever they perform any treatment, interview or examination of a patient. Evaluation will be by clinical faculty and interns.
Prerequisites: EM6202N

ND6410N Internship I  - Credits 9.0
Students will spend eight hours each week, in two four-hour shifts, in an NUHS or associated preceptor site. Students in ND6410N will move from an assistant role to a primary role for a small group of patients. This is done under more intense supervision than students in Phase III, Term One or Two. The smaller number of primary patient bookings will allow for evaluation, feedback, mentoring, and improvement of the students' skills. Evaluation will be conducted by peers, senior interns and clinic faculty. ND6410N students must write a detailed case summary for all patients. During periods of time without primary patient bookings, ND6410N students will work in the hydrotherapy treatment area or the clinic dispensary. The goal of this first internship block is to make the transition to being responsible for the case, and assemble all of the relevant clinical skills under more intense supervision than students in ND7110N and ND7210N.
Prerequisites: Completion of Phase I, FR6307N, ND6317N
Corequisites: NP6415N, NP6417N, NP6418N, NP6419N

ND7110N Internship II - Credits 16.0
This comprises the second of three block assignments during which students will assume responsibility for the treatment of patients within a naturopathic medical team. Although ultimate responsibility for the case will rest with the supervising doctor, the interns will be given sufficient opportunity to exercise all of the skills and competencies that they have acquired in their training to date. Consistent and early feedback will be the hallmarks of the first block assignment in order that the interns have the awareness and the time to remediate any deficiency, and to obtain maximum educational value from the experience. Students will be evaluated in a number of ways, and will show competence in treating a variety of different clinical conditions and patient populations. In all cases, interns will demonstrate an understanding of naturopathic principles as well as clinical skill.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase II
Corequisite: ST7107N

ND7210N Internship III - Credits 14.0
This comprises the third of three block assignments during which students will assume increasing responsibility for the treatment of patients within a naturopathic medical team. Although ultimate responsibility for the case will rest with the supervising doctor, interns will be given sufficient opportunity to exercise all of the skills and competencies that they have acquired in their training to date. Greater self-sufficiency in the management of patient care, combined with evidence of awareness of indications for
consultation and referral are the hallmarks of this third block assignment. Students will be evaluated in a number of ways, and will show competence in treating a variety of different clinical conditions and patient populations. In all cases, interns will demonstrate an understanding of naturopathic principles as well as clinical skill.
Prerequisite: ND7110N 

NN5212N Homeopathy I - Credits 1.0
This course introduces students to the principles of homeopathy. Basic terminology and concepts, such as the purpose of the repertory, the study of materia medica, case taking, and the preparation of homeopathic medicines are discussed. Students will learn examples of basic prescribing for acute conditions. This skill is presented at a beginner's level and in preparation for more in-depth methodology to follow in Homeopathy II-IV courses.
Prerequisite: None

NN5406N Science of Diet and Nutrition - Credits 3.0
This course provides a basic understanding of the fundamentals of human nutrition and stresses the essentials of the basis for good nutritional status. It serves as the basic nutrition course that follows the basic science presentation of the macronutrients and the micronutrients presented in Nutritional Biochemistry (BC5308N). Topics presented in this course include a review of the macronutrients and micronutrients with emphasis on the health properties of each as well as the severe deficiency states for both micronutrients and macronutrients. Digestion, absorption and transport of the nutrients, and consequences of malabsorption care are covered. Energy production, energy balance and weight management are also described. Food habits in the United States and nutrition across the life cycle are discussed in the course. Male and female health, sports and exercise nutrition, enteral and parenteral nutrition procedures, as well as an introduction to the science of food preparation and handling are included. An introduction to nutritional status assessment using food frequency questionnaires and diet history is given.
Prerequisite: BC5308N

NN6107N Pharmacology I - Credits 3.0
This course provides a basic understanding of the use of drugs in western medicine for the treatment of disease. Topics covered in this course will be descriptions of drug names and classification, general principles of drug action and metabolism, which will cover the area of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Factors influencing drug action and a discussion of drug safety are addressed. A large part of this course will be a description of the drug actions on body systems including all the major organ systems and the disorders and diseases in each of the systems. Included will be a description of the mechanism of action, major untoward effects and contraindications for each drug and drug category. Interactions with other drugs and botanicals as well as a description of the nutrients that are depleted by each of the drugs will be covered. Drug actions on infection and immune system regulation as well as chemical dependency and substance abuse will be described. A discussion of poisons and their antidotes is included.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

NN6108N Botanical Medicine I - Credits 3.0
This course presents the fundamentals of herbal science and pharmacognosy. Topics included are herbal terminology, principles of herbal pharmacology and treatment, as well as mechanisms for optimizing safety. Dosage forms and preparations and standardization are covered in detail. Extraction and purification of the active ingredients are explained in the course. Herbal approaches to maintenance of health and treatment of disease as well as the strengthening of organ systems are presented for all the major organ systems of the body and many of the primary care diseases found in each of those organ systems. A major focus in the second half of this course is a description of the materia medica for 30 of the common botanical medicines used in western medicine. Active ingredient, part of the plant used, major therapeutic use, untoward effects, contraindications and interactions with drugs, and other botanical medicines are covered in detail.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

NN6112N Homeopathy II - Credits 4.0
A thorough study of the Organon is made, as preparation for effective practice. Topics include the principles of health and disease, medicine action, case taking, suppression, complex cases, alternating diseases, and provings.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

NN6206N Pharmacology II - Credits 3.0
The Pharmacology II course will encompass a discussion of first and second level drugs for the common disorders of each organ system and the art of prescribing these medications. The course addresses the development of medical protocols for the patient by the physician using current pharmaceutical agents for the prevention and treatment of disease. Included in the course are discussions of treatment duration as well as dosages and side effects of common drugs. Differences in individual reactions according to CyP450 typology and idiopathic reactions to drugs are stressed. The administration of the drugs including the effects of enteral and parenteral administration as well as depot and subcutaneous routes will be discussed. Drug-drug, drug-herb and drug-nutrient as well as drug-food interactions and nutrient depletion by drugs will be addressed. Students will be given the opportunity to develop an appropriate course of treatment for the drugs most often prescribed in the United States. Students will be given case studies and will be expected to develop appropriate protocols and specific medications for patients across the life cycle. Students will be given a description of the scope of license regarding medications of legend and over-the-counter drugs.
Prerequisite: NN6107N

NN6212N Homeopathy III - Credits 4.0
Building on the basic concepts introduced to this point, the course centers on the actual skills of taking a case, analyzing symptoms, using the Repertory, and selecting a remedy. Materia medica is taught by examining provings. Students will study carefully the range of symptoms in the proving, and the physiological actions, as well as the wide variety of mental symptomatology found in many provings.
Prerequisite: NN6112N

NN6301N Clinical Nutrition - Credits 4.0
This course offers a nutritional approach to the prevention and treatment of disease, with an emphasis on maintenance of health and homeostasis and specific disease conditions and their prevention. Nutritional assessment methods are covered in detail and the methods for obtaining a physical exam of nutrition health and means to assess nutritional status are covered. A description of the approach to nutrition counseling and the nutrition counseling session are described. Topics covered are food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), health history and physical exam forms, and food diary and intake forms. The diseases of the major organ systems in the body are covered with the musculoskeletal, joint health, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems covered in depth. Metabolic diseases such as diabetes and thyroid diseases are also described. Liver detoxification, adrenal stress syndrome and a functional medicine approach to the liver, adrenal, thyroid, and gastrointestinal tract are described. Other diseases covered are central nervous system disease and infectious and dermatological conditions. A discussion of immune up-regulation, glandular products, chelation therapy, and glyconutrients is held. The use of all nutritional therapies, botanical medicines and other functional medicine approaches to maintenance of health and prevention and treatment of disease are described.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

NN6308N Botanical Medicine II - Credits 4.0
This advanced course will engage the subject of therapeutic herbalism in great detail. The strategies for addressing dysfunction in the organ systems will be outlined. Specific aspects of botanicals will be studied including: constituents, pharmacognosy, specific indications, contraindications, toxicity, and dosing parameters. In the traditional manner, the herbs will be studied according to therapeutic category (nervines, hepatics, anodynes, etc). Close attention will be paid to the potential for herb-herb and herb-drug interaction. Students will practice compounding and dispensing as part of their clinical rotations, but this course will provide the theoretical information to enable them to do so.
Prerequisite: NN6108N

NN6312N Homeopathy IV - Credits 4.0
Materia medica study is continued in depth. Follow-up prescriptions and case analysis over sequential visits is emphasized. Medicine potency, repetition, time between prescriptions, and potency alternation are examined. Students are taught how to distinguish between suppression, an aggravation and a positive response. Group exercises continue the use of cases for analysis, as well as presentations on materia medica. Challenging or unique cases are presented and discussed in class. This serves to reinforce previously presented concepts such as the principles of case taking, case analysis, remedy selection, and proper follow-up. Comparative materia medica is discussed during presentations about case analysis and remedy section. The value of acute prescribing and the role of adjunct therapies are explored.
Prerequisite: NN6212N

NN6412N Advanced Naturopathic Botanical Prescribing - Credits 3.0
Additional materia medica will be discussed in this course, a continuation of NN6308N. Sources, indications, contraindications, and pharmacology of medical herbs are described. Herbal medicines from the Eclectic Materia Medica, including those with a narrow therapeutic window are discussed, including precise dosing regimens as well as traditional combinations of botanicals for various organ systems or conditions.
Prerequisite: NN6308N

NN6416N Advanced Nutrition: Functional Medicine - Credits 2.0
This course explores the field of functional medicine. Biochemical individuality, interconnections in physiological and biochemical systems of the body, and the maximization of organ reserve are key concepts. The testing and protocols for addressing fundamental issues such as inflammation, detoxification, H Pylori, leaky gut (permeability increases), mitochondrial dysfunction, food allergy, environmental allergy, and chemical sensitivity are reviewed. In addition, the course outlines specific protocols for long-term nutritional management of chronic illness. Discussion of the merits of these approaches versus other therapeutic interventions and the applications to prevention are encouraged.
Prerequisite: NN6301N

NN7109N Botanical Medicine IV: Advanced Materia Medica - Credits 1.0
    This final course in the botanical medicine series focuses on acquiring knowledge of additional botanicals, not previously covered, that are important for a naturopathic practice. The class will also review those herbs that are within the scope of naturopathic medicine but must be used with extra caution. Class time will be allocated to reviewing herbs that are very frequently used in naturopathic medicine and therefore both important to patient care and likely to appear on licensing examinations. Students will be expected to demonstrate knowledge of herb-drug interactions and how to skillfully research queries about the potential risk associated with a herbal medicine treatment using reliable databases and other resources.
    Prerequisite: NN6412N

NP5312N Introduction to Naturopathic Counseling - Credits 1.5
Effective counseling skills are essential to the practice of naturopathic medicine. In this course, students will review the techniques of counseling and engage in the practice of those techniques. Self-awareness, listening, understanding, and exploring sensitive topics are discussed and to some extent practiced with peers. Students learn techniques of stress management and apply them to their own life.
Prerequisite: None

NP6109N Introduction to Naturopathic Primary Care - Credits 3.5
Current naturopathic practice includes the role of a primary care physician. In naturopathic medicine, primary care is based on the naturopathic principles and guided through the use of the therapeutic order. This class serves as the introduction to naturopathic medicine in practice, with the focus on acute conditions. Students will learn how to manage common acute conditions safely, how to determine cases for referral, and how to treat these conditions using naturopathic therapies.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

NP6415N Advanced Topics in Women's Health - Credits 1.0
    Taking the perspective that the whole person and the determinants of health need to be considered in the treatment of female health issues, students will review approaches to common issues (dysmenorrhea, endometriosis, infertility, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, amenorrhea, infertility, and menopause,) a rational approach to these issues that includes counseling about common medical options, prevention, and naturopathic therapeutics.
Corequisite: ND6410N

NP6417N Internal Medicine / Emergency Medicine - Credits 4.5
This course is an in-depth study of the treatment and management of disease of the organ systems. Although naturopathic medicine promotes prevention, the practicing naturopathic physician must be prepared to address any of the common issues seen in a general practice. Students entering this Trimester Eight course will already be trained in diagnosis and therapeutic modalities. This course is a review of treatment and management strategies. Some new treatment information will be added to strengthen students' knowledge of botanical, nutritional and homeopathic medicine and other therapies. The course will occur throughout the week, and treatment of disease of the organ systems (cardiopulmonary, gastroenterological, hepatobiliary, renal/urologic, hematological, and gynecologic) will be followed in depth. The last lecture of the week will be on emergency medicine topics, relating to the internal medicine issues taught to date. The overall approach builds on the clinical theory and principles studied throughout the ND program.
    Prerequisite: Entry into Phase II, Term Four

NP6418N Naturopathic Management of Special Populations:
Geriatric, Pediatric, Adolescent, Pre Natal and Peri Natal - Credits 3.0

Naturopathic physicians are responsible for providing consistent and thorough outpatient care to people of all ages. This course focuses on the practice strategies and issues encountered in treating pediatric, geriatric and obstetric patients. A review of screening and health maintenance strategies for the adult patient is included. Family practice obligations such as vaccination, school physicals and insurance reports are reviewed. Additional treatment information in the areas of dermatology, neurology, hematology, and EENT are included.
Corequisite: NP6417N

NP6419N Environmental Medicine/Rheumatology/Autoimmunity - Credits 1.0
This course will help prepare students to manage inflammatory and autoimmune syndromes. This is approached from several perspectives including: the role of environmental toxins and the dysfunction of enzymatic biotransformation systems; the loss of immune tolerance; the role of genetic predisposition to autoimmunity; and environmental triggers for rheumatic disease. The use of the entire spectrum of
interventions is considered with a focus addressing underlying mechanisms.
Corequisite: ND6410N

NT5110N Foundations of Naturopathic Medicine I- Credits 2.0
This course forms the basis of the clinical theory stream of courses in the ND program, which serves as a framework for practice. The course begins with an overview and the vision and ultimate goals of the ND program. The naturopathic principles are discussed at length. Major concepts such as health, holism and vitalism are analyzed by the class. Ecology and environmental health as a basis for individual health and the broader implications of the Gaia theory are explored. Spirituality and its importance to life and healing and the need for the physicians to be whole themselves form the concluding portion of the course.
Prerequisite: None

NT5210N Foundations of Naturopathic Medicine II - Credits 1.0
This course examines the historical and cultural roots of naturopathic medicine. The history of western medicine and the roots of naturopathic medicine in the context of 19th century nature cure are examined. The role and experience of women in medicine is discussed. A portion of the course will explore the evolution and relevance to naturopathic medicine of various world medical systems (East Asian, South Asian, African, etc.). As a prelude to future clinical theory courses, and the development of therapeutic skills, the course will conclude with some discussion of clinical theory, such as the therapeutic order.
Prerequisite: None

NT5211N Basic Science Applications: Determinants of Health - Credits 1.5
Addressing the determinants of health comprises the foundational step in naturopathic therapeutics. The knowledge of the human being and their internal and external environment that is gained by studying the basic sciences gives the practitioner insight into how to address the determinants of health. This course reviews the most common categories of the determinants and the basic science topics that relate to them such as: proper hydration and its relation to kidney function, perspiration, pituitary function, beneficial effects of adequate sunlight and the nature of vitamin D metabolism; and known risks of UV light, etc. The theme of the course is that basic science knowledge assists us in making a diagnosis, and in engineering the proper conditions for healing and prevention of disease.
Prerequisite: NT5110N

NT6110N Advanced Naturopathic Clinical Theory - Credits 1.0
The therapeutic order is discussed in more detail. Students will by this time have a basic knowledge of the various naturopathic therapies. Their employment within different orders of intervention will be discussed as a part of a dynamic approach to patient care. A unified theory of healing is presented, with emphasis on the clinical indications of improvement or deterioration of a patient's condition.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

NT6210N Applied Naturopathic Clinical Theory - Credits 2.0
        This course builds on previously attained knowledge in diagnosis and laboratory medicine, focusing on disorders of the endocrine system. Students will learn how to approach commonly encountered endocrine conditions in naturopathic medicine, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. All aspects of endocrine management are covered, from presentation and assessment of symptoms, to diagnostic testing and treatment. The use of more experimental tests and therapies and the evidence behind them are approached in a critical sense. Both conventional and naturopathic therapies are reviewed. Students will practice creating treatment protocols following the naturopathic therapeutic order using clinical cases.    
    Prerequisite: Completion of Phase I

NX6215N Advanced Laboratory Diagnosis and Endocrinology - Credits 2.5
This course builds on previously attained knowledge in diagnosis and laboratory medicine, focusing on disorders of the endocrine system. Students will learn how to approach commonly encountered endocrine conditions in naturopathic medicine, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. All aspects of endocrine management are covered, from presentation and assessment of symptoms, to diagnostic testing and treatment. The use of more experimental tests and therapies and the evidence behind them are approached in a critical sense. Both conventional and naturopathic therapies are reviewed. Students will practice creating treatment protocols following the naturopathic therapeutic order using clinical cases.
Corequisite: EM6202N

NX6318N Clinical Problem Solving - Credits 2.0
The primary objective of this course is to give students an opportunity to master the diagnostic skills, and the associated psychomotor skills used in a broad-based conservative care (primary health care) setting. The laboratory portion of this course will use simulated patients to help students synthesize and refine their history taking, examination and diagnostic skills. Emphasis will be placed on the doctor-patient relationship, including appropriate ethical boundaries and effective communication skills. Students will also practice record keeping skills, including the preparation of SOAP notes. This course will require students to perform male and female sensitive exams (breast and pelvic) on standardized patients.
Prerequisite: EM6202N
Corequisite: EM6310N

NX6414N Doctor-Patient Relationship - Credits 2.0
This course focuses on the practical issues of patient management in practice. Students are asked to explore the literature to broaden their understanding of the issues in the field and then reflect on and actively develop strategies for their relationships with patients and other health care providers. Lecture and discussion topics include: structures in doctor-patient interaction; models of the doctor-patient interaction; doctorpatient boundaries; the impact of the doctor-patient relationship on health care outcomes; the impact of the doctor-patient relationship on patient satisfaction; culturally-responsive health care; the sociological context of patient suffering; co-creation of the patient's story in a therapeutic relationship; death, dying and palliative health care; management of the abused patient; and the doctor's responsibilities to the community and society. Class time is used to explore doctor-patient relationship issues through lectures, cases, guest
presentations, structured interpersonal exercises, article reviews, and discussion.
Prerequisite: EM6310 or EM6310N

ON5311N Oriental Medicine (ND) - Credits 1.5
This is an introduction to oriental medicine. The key concepts of Yin and Yang, meridian theory, organ systems, disharmonies, and pathogens are discussed. Students will become familiar with physiology from the oriental medicine perspective. Students will learn to make comparisons between these concepts and categories of western biomedicine. Examples of treatment are given throughout the course.
Prerequisite: None

PA5204N Fundamentals of Pathology - Credits 3.0
This course provides an introduction to the basic changes in the morphology of the cells, tissues and organs in diseased states. Extensive use of visual aids with the latest computer technology helps students to differentiate abnormal from normal, and to correlate the clinical aspects of the alterations. Included also is discussion on general characteristics, classification and differential diagnosis of cysts, benign and malignant tumors and other neoplastic entities. All content will be discussed in lecture and group activity/discussion format.
Prerequisites: AN5107N, PH5103N

PA5302N Systems Pathology I - Credits 4.0
Considered in this course are the pathologies peculiar to and characteristic of the various systems of the body. The systems examined are the nervous system, myopathy, neuropathy, bone and joint pathology, immunopathology, hematopathology, and dermatopathology. Each condition is studied from the standpoint of general characteristics, gross and microscopic appearance, and clinical course.
Prerequisite: PA5204N
Corequisites: AN5304N, AN5305N, AN5307N

PA5402N Systems Pathology II - Credits 6.0
Considered in this course are the pathologies peculiar to and characteristic of various systems of the body. The systems examined are respiratory, cardiovascular, reproductive and mammary, gastrointestinal (inclusive of liver, gall bladder and pancreas), urinary, and endocrine.
Prerequisite: PA5302N

PH5103N Cellular Physiology & Hematology - Credits 4.0
In this course, students will review, in a problem-based setting, some of the basic science concepts related to the physiology of cellular membranes and organelles, along with the integrated functioning of the blood as a tissue. The physiology laboratory exercises, using the individual examples of erythrocytes and yeast cells, will address the related basic science issues of diffusion, osmosis, membrane transport, etc.
Corequisite: AN5107N

PH5208N Neurophysiology - Credits 3.5
The purpose of this course is to study the neurophysiology of the nervous system. The complex signals created and utilized by the nervous system to control most bodily functions will be studied in depth to gain a better understanding of how the human nervous system functions. Areas of study will include: synaptic transmission; autonomic control; sensory systems including the special senses of vision, hearing, touch, balance (vestibular function), taste and smell; signal integration in the CNS; control of the motor system (including skeletal muscle physiology); and higher cortical functions such as speech, sleep and associational areas of the brain.
Prerequisite: PH5103N
Corequisites: AN5203N, AN5214N

PH5306N Neuroendocrinology, GI & Reproductive Physiology - Credits 4.0
This course will address neuroendocrine mechanisms that operate to maintain homeostatic control over various systems and states within the body. The primary focus will be upon the normal mechanisms and reflexes that operate to maintain a healthy state. Specific topics will include regulation of the reproductive, gastrointestinal and thermoregulatory systems. Neuroendocrine feedback pathways that regulate metabolic and mineral homeostasis will also be discussed. Course instruction will be through lecture and group discussion of selected problems and cases.
Prerequisite: PH5208N

PH5405N Cardiovascular, Respiratory & Renal Physiology - Credits 5.0
This course will present the normal physiologic function of the respiratory system (breathing, ventilation and gas exchange), circulatory system (blood pressure, cardiac output, pressure and flow homeostasis, and cardiac electrophysiology), and the kidney (conservation and excretion, and volume homeostasis). Content will be presented through lecture, laboratory and supplemental problem exercises. Structure-function relationships and mechanisms of regulation will be emphasized. Laboratory based measurements on human subjects will be used along with computer simulations to demonstrate and illustrate core concepts. Supplemental problem exercises will provide students the opportunity to demonstrate and test their understanding and capability to apply core concepts toward explanative assessment of how each of these systems function.
Prerequisites: AN5304N, AN5305N, PH5306N

RA5206N Normal Radiographic Anatomy & Variants - Credits 1.5
Naturopathic physicians must have a thorough understanding of the normal radiographic anatomy of the skeletal system if they are to detect abnormal pathology in these regions. This course provides background information as a basis for courses in musculoskeletal imaging diagnosis, essentially designed to help students differentiate a normal structure from pathology. The study of normal variants and anomalies of the skeletal system and skeletal measurement procedures are presented to give students an overall understanding of variations of normal, which both mimic pathology and often present with unique clinical challenges.
Prerequisites: AN5101 or AN5101N AND AN5102 or AN5102N

RA6207N Imaging Diagnosis - Credits 2.0
    The basic principles of the major modalities of diagnostic imaging are discussed. Students will learn normal findings on X-ray films and also will become familiar with the type of abnormal findings yielded by the most common tests. This course is designed for the naturopathic student planning to be in general practice that will request and receive radiographic and other diagnostic imaging reports. Interpretation of these reports and knowing when to request them are the major learning outcomes.
    Prerequisite: RA5206N

RE5401N Evidence Based Practice:Critical Appraisal of the Biomedical Literature - Credits 1.0
The focus of this course is research literacy, appraisal of clinical research studies, and the application of the best research evidence to patient care and clinical practice. Students will sharpen their skills recognizing and developing both the research hypothesis and patient-centered clinical questions as well as searching the highest quality and most significant clinical and basic science literature and databases, including
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) specific databases. Students will learn to appraise and analyze the research studies and evaluate the evidence before deciding to apply the best evidence to patient and health care issues. Students will learn to effectively communicate literature reviews, analyses and conclusions in written, oral and electronic formats to patients, peers and professionals. Students will develop the skills for effective and efficient information management, research literacy and evidence based practice (EBP) habits to accelerate learning and expand basic and clinical science knowledge.
Prerequisite: MI5205N

ST7107N Minor Surgery / Emergency Procedures - Credits 2.0
This course outlines the basic principles and procedures of minor surgery. Clean field, sterile instrumentation and wound cleanliness are stressed throughout. Basic in-office procedures such as biopsy, wound debridement, treatment of benign skin lesions, and suturing are discussed. Laboratory components include practice of suturing technique and use of specialized equipment and instrumentation. Appropriate wound dressings, and topical agents, such as antiseptics and anesthetics are reviewed. Students will review this material during their internship.
Prerequisite: Completion of Phase II

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